Urinary Tract Infections

Cervicitis, Ectropion & True Erosion

Description of Medical Condition • Cervicitis — inflammatory changes due to infections • Ectropion — eversion of the cervix in pregnancy • True erosion — loss of overlying vaginal epithelium due to trauma, e.g., forceful insertion of vaginal speculum in patient with atrophic mucosa System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: • Cervicitis — very common in sexually active women • Ectropion — with oral contraceptive use; very common in pregnant women • True erosion — occasionally seen in postmenopausal women Predominant age: Sexually active women Predominant sex: Female only Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Cervicitis — metrorrhagia, post-coital bleeding, vaginal discharge • Ectropion — red cervix due …

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Cervicitis

Description of Medical Condition An inflammation of the uterine cervix. • Infectious cervicitis may be caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasmas, Herpes simplex or Trichomonas vaginalis. • Chronic cervicitis is characterized by inflammation of the cervix without an identified pathogen System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: • Gonorrhea: 166/100,000; 2% of sexually active women < age 30 • Chlamydia: 290/100,000; 5-35% of women • Trichomonas: 1200/100,000; 5-25% of women Predominant age: Infectious cervicitis is most common in adolescents, but can be seen in women of any age Predominant sex: Female only Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Mucopurulent (yellow) discharge from the cervix • Cervical …

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Cervical Dysplasia

Description of Medical Condition Pre-invasive neoplastic epithelial changes in the transformation zone of the uterine cervix often associated with human papilloma virus infections • Mild dysplasia (CIN I or SIL low grade) — cellular changes are limited to the lower one-third of the squamous epithelium • Moderate dysplasia (CIN II or SIL high grade) — cellular changes are limited to the lower two-thirds of the squamous epithelium • Severe dysplasia (CIN III or SIL high grade or carcinoma in situ) — cellular changes involves the full thickness of the squamous epithelium System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Difficult to assess due to wide variability in false negative Papsmear reporting …

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Urinary Tract Infections and Prostatitis

Definition Infections of the urinary tract represent a wide variety of clinical syndromes including urethritis, cystitis, prostatitis, and pyelonephritis. A urinary tract infection is defined as the presence of microorganisms in the urine that cannot be accounted for by contamination. The organisms have the potential to invade the tissues of the urinary tract and adjacent structures. Lower tract infections include cystitis (bladder), urethritis (urethra), prostatitis (prostate gland), and epididymitis. Upper tract infections involve the kidney and are referred to as pyelonephritis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections are not associated with structural or neurologic abnormalities that may interfere with the normal flow of urine or the voiding mechanism. Complicated urinary tract infections are …

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Urinary tract infection

Description of Medical Condition Inflammation of the bladder mucosa. This topic refers primarily to infectious cystitis. Other urinary tract infections are discussed elsewhere. System(s) affected: Renal/Urologic Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: 3-8% of women have bacteriuria at any given time. 30% of females have at least one UTI; 7 million doctor visits a year Predominant age: Young adults and older Predominant sex: Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease Note: Any or all may be present • Burning during urination • Pain during urination • Urgency (sensation of need to urinate frequently) • Frequency • Sensation of incomplete bladder emptying • Blood in urine • Lower abdominal pain or cramping • …

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