Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a communicable infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can produce silent, latent infection as well as progressive, active disease. Globally, 2 billion people are infected and 2 to 3 million people die from tuberculosis each year. M. tuberculosis is transmitted from person to person by coughing or sneezing. Close contacts of Tuberculosis patients are most likely to become infected. Fifty-one percent of Tuberculosis patients in the United States are foreign born, most often from Mexico, the Philippines, Vietnam, India, China, Haiti, or South Korea. In the United States, Tuberculosis disproportionately affects ethnic minorities (blacks and Hispanics). HIV is the most important risk factor for active Tuberculosis, especially among …

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Treatment of Tuberculosis

General principles Drug treatment is the cornerstone of Tuberculosis management. A minimum of two drugs, and generally three or four drugs, must be used simultaneously. Drug treatment is continued for at least 6 months and up to 2 to 3 years for some cases of multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-Tuberculosis). Measures to assure adherence, such as directly observed therapy (DOT), are important. Pharmacologic treatment Latent Infection Chemoprophylaxis should be initiated in patients to reduce the risk of progression to active disease. Isoniazid, 300 mg daily in adults, is the primary treatment for latent Tuberculosis in the United States, generally given for 9 months. Individuals likely to be noncompliant may be treated with a …

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Management of Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis was a disappearing disease in North America until the early 1980s. However, the spread of human immunodeficiency virus infection has changed that. From 1985 to 1992 there was an increase in the number of cases of tuberculosis reported in the United States, and most of these cases were in New York, New Jersey, Texas, Florida, and California. The other major change in the epidemiology of tuberculosis has been the emergence of multidrug-resistant disease. Factors contributing to this problem in the United States include inadequate public health resources to meet increased needs and unstable living conditions for many of the patients (especially in the homeless injection drug users, many with coexistent …

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Tuberculosis

Description of Medical Condition A common disease transmitted by inhaling airborne bacilli from a person with active tuberculosis (TB). The bacilli multiply in the alveolus and are carried by macrophages, lymphatics and blood to distant sites (eg. lung pleura, brain, kidney and bone). Tissue hypersensitivity usually halts infection within 10 weeks. • Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is asymptomatic, noninfectious and usually detected by a positive skin test • TB: active disease — occurs in 10% of infected individuals without preventive therapy. Chance of disease increases with immunosuppression and is highest for all individuals within 2 years after infection — 85% of cases are pulmonary which is infectious. • Primary TB: disease …

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