Tags: Zagam

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative …

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Fluoroquinolones: Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin

Overview Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibacterials that have experienced an upsurge in use in recent years. Because of their broad-spectrum activity, high efficacy, favorable dosing, and availability in oral and IV form, these agents are indicated for a range of bacterial infections, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tract infections. Earlier generations of fluoroquinolones (e.g., ofloxacin) had limited activity against some respiratory pathogens, such as S. pneumoniae. However, recent fluoroquinolone agents (so-called third-generation agents, or the “respiratory fluoroquinolones”) are active against a broad spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including atypical organisms. Therefore, they are highly effective in RTIs. An important factor influencing use of recently launched fluoroquinolones is the withdrawal from the …

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Fluoroquinolones

Overview. Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibacterials that have experienced an upsurge in use in recent years. Because of their broad-spectrum activity, high efficacy, favorable dosing, and availability in oral and IV form, these agents are indicated for a range of bacterial infections, including respiratory, GI, and urinary tract infections. Earlier generations of fluoroquinolones (e.g., ofloxacin) had limited activity against some respiratory pathogens, such as S. pneumoniae. However, more recent fluoroquinolone agents (so-called third-generation agents or the “respiratory fluoroquinolones”) are active against a broad spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including atypical organisms. Therefore, they are highly effective in RTIs. An important factor influencing the use of recently launched fluoroquinolones is that several …

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Zagam (sparfloxacin) – fluoroquinolone antibiotic

In the past decade, fluoroquinolone antibiotics have gained broad worldwide acceptance for the oral and intravenous (IV) treatment of a range of infections. These antibiotics act by inhibiting DNA gyrase-an enzyme required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination-and are active against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms and atypical pathogens, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although they are generally very safe, fluoroquinolones as a class are associated with phototoxicity, seizures, and hypo- and hyperglycemia (the latter usually occur in diabetics receiving oral hypoglycemics or insulin). Also, fluoroquinolones form a poorly absorbed chelation complex with sucralfate and divalent cations (calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc, and also aluminum). Drug resistance is …

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