Tags: Vistide

Anti-Infective Therapy

Despite dire warnings that we are approaching the end of the antibiotic era, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria continues to rise. The proportions of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains continue to increase. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is now common throughout the world. Multiresistant Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas are everyday realities in many of our hospitals. The press is now warning the lay public of the existence of “dirty hospitals.” As never before, it is critical that health care providers understand the principles of proper anti-infective therapy and use anti-infective agents judiciously. These agents need to be reserved for treatable infections — not used to calm the …

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Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative …

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Cidofovir

Drug Approvals (British Approved Name, US Adopted Name, rINN) INNs in other languages (French, Latin, and Spanish): Synonyms: Cidofovir; Cidofovirum; GS-0504; GS-504; HPMPC; Sidofoviiri BAN: Cidofovir USAN: Cidofovir INN: Cidofovir [rINN (en)] INN: Cidofovir [rINN (es)] INN: Cidofovir [rINN (fr)] INN: Cidofovirum [rINN (la)] INN: Цидофовир [rINN (ru)] Chemical name: {[(S)-2-(4-Amino-2-oxo-1(2H)-pyrimidinyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]methyl}phosphonic acid; 1-[(S)-3-Hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-cytosine Molecular formula: C8H14N3O6P =279.2 CAS: 113852-37-2 (anhydrous cidofovir); 149394-66-1 (cidofovir dihydrate) ATC code: J05AB12 Read code: y0ATd Adverse Effects The most serious dose-limiting adverse effect of cidofovir is nephrotoxicity the incidence and severity of which can be reduced by use with probenecid and by ensuring adequate hydration. There have been instances of acute renal failure after only 1 …

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