Tags: Valacyclovir

Herpesviruses

The herpesvirus group of the family Herpesviridae comprises large, enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses found in both animals and humans. They are ubiquitous and produce infections ranging from painful skin ulcers to chickenpox to encephalitis. The major members of the group to infect humans are the two herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and -2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpesvirus 6, and the recently discovered human herpesvirus types 7 and 8. Occasionally, the simian herpesvirus, herpes B virus, has caused human disease. All herpesviruses are morphologically similar with an overall diameter of 180-200 nm. The nucleic acid core is ~ 30-45 nm in diameter, surrounded by an icosahedral capsid. The …

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Cytomegalovirus

Essentials of Diagnosis • “Owl eye” cells in tissue biopsy, cytology • Cultured in diploid fibroblast cells • Antibody detection of those patients seroconverting or at risk for reactivation • CMV detection in blood or bodily fluids by antigenemia, PCR, or other DNA-based assays, eg hybrid capture, or by culture General Considerations A. Epidemiology. CMV is ubiquitous, and in developed countries ~50% of adults have developed antibody (Box 7). Age-specific prevalence rates show that ~ 10-15% of children are infected by CMV during the first 5 years of life, after which the rate of new infections levels off. The rate subsequently increases during young adulthood, probably through close personal contact or …

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Varicella-Zoster Virus

Essentials of Diagnosis • Vesiculopustular, generalized rash in a febrile child (varicella or chicken pox) • Dermatomal pustular eruption in elderly or immunocompromised patient (herpes zoster or shingles) • Multinucleated, giant epithelial cells with intranuclear inclusions in skin scrapings, tissue biopsy Slow growth of virus (5-7 days) in diploid fibroblast cells if fresh vesicles are cultured • Detection of VZV antigen by immunofluorescence of skin vesicles (best diagnostic test) General Considerations A. Epidemiology. VZV infection, the cause of both varicella (chickenpox) and herpes zoster, is ubiquitous (Box 4). Nearly all persons contract chickenpox before adulthood, and 90% of cases occur before the age of 10. The virus is highly contagious, with …

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Herpes Simplex Virus

Essentials of Diagnosis • Intranuclear inclusions and multinucleated giant cells in tissue cytology. • Grows rapidly in many types of tissue culture. • HSV antigen can be detected in tissue by immunofluorescence. • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) now considered best assay for HSV encephalitis. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The term herpes (from the Greek herpein, to creep) and the clinical description of cold sores date back to Hippocrates. Two distinct epidemiologic and antigenic types of HSVs exist (HSV-1 and HSV-2). HSVs have worldwide distribution. There are no known animal vectors, and humans appear to be the only natural reservoir (Box 33-1 shows the syndromes caused by …

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Buy Generic Zovirax (Acyclovir) No Prescription 200/400/800mg

Acyclovir: Side Effects Generic Name: Aciclovir (UK), Acyclovir (US, Canada) Under what local brands and in what dosages is generic Acyclovir or Aciclovir sold in pharmacies of Britain, United States, and Canada? In pharmacies of the United States, Great Britain and Canada the pharmacists offer you to buy Aciclovir (UK) or Acyclovir (US, Canada) (according to your prescription or without a prescription) under such brand names and in such strengths and dosage forms: UK US Canada Aciclovir 5% w/w Cream Aciclovir Tablets 200, 400, 800mg Aciclovir 200mg/5ml & 400mg/5ml Oral Suspension Zovirax 200mg Tablets Zovirax 800mg Tablets Zovirax Cream Zovirax Eye Ointment Zovirax IV 250mg, 500mg Zovirax Suspension Acyclovir 200mg Capsuls …

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Chickenpox

Description of Medical Condition A common, highly contagious, childhood exanthem characterized by the development of typical crops of vesicles on the skin and mucous membranes. • The virus is spread by respiratory droplets or direct contact with vesicles or indirectly through freshly soiled articles • Outbreaks tend to occur from January to May • The usual incubation period is 14-16 days (range 11-21). Patients are infectious from approximately 48 hours before appearance of the rash until the final lesions have crusted. Most people acquire chickenpox during childhood and develop long immunity. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Nervous Genetics: No known genetic pattern Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Common Predominant age: Peak incidence 5-9 years, but …

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Anti-Infective Therapy

Despite dire warnings that we are approaching the end of the antibiotic era, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria continues to rise. The proportions of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus strains continue to increase. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is now common throughout the world. Multiresistant Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas are everyday realities in many of our hospitals. The press is now warning the lay public of the existence of “dirty hospitals.” As never before, it is critical that health care providers understand the principles of proper anti-infective therapy and use anti-infective agents judiciously. These agents need to be reserved for treatable infections — not used to calm the …

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Definition The spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases includes the classic venereal diseases – gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale – as well as a variety of other pathogens known to be spread by sexual contact (Table Sexually Transmitted Diseases). Common clinical syndromes associated with sexually transmitted diseases are listed in Table Selected Syndromes Associated with Common Sexually Transmitted Pathogens. The most current information on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  can be found at http://www.cdc.gov. TABLE. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Disease Associated Pathogens Bacterial Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Syphilis Treponema pallidum Chancroid Hemophilus ducreyi Granuloma inguinale Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Enteric disease …

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Genital herpes

The term herpes is used to describe two distinct but antigenically related serotypes of herpes simplex virus. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (Herpes Simplex Virus-1) is most commonly associated with oropharyngeal disease; type 2 (Herpes Simplex Virus-2) is most closely associated with genital disease. Diagnosis A presumptive diagnosis of genital herpes commonly is made on the basis of the presence of dark-field-negative, vesicular, or ulcerative genital lesions. A history of similar lesions or recent sexual contact with an individual with similar lesions also is useful in making the diagnosis. Tissue culture is the most specific (100%) and sensitive method (80% to 90%) of confirming the diagnosis of first-episode genital herpes. Treatment …

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HIV / AIDS

Definition Table Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection in Adults and AIDS Surveillance Case Definition and Table Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection in Children Younger than 13 Years present the revised classification systems for adult and child HIV infection. Pathogenesis Transmission of HIV Infection with HIV occurs through three primary modes: sexual, parenteral, and perinatal. Sexual intercourse, primarily receptive anal and vaginal intercourse, is the most common vehicle for transmission. The probability of HIV transmission from receptive anorectal intercourse is 0.1% to 3% per sexual contact and 0.1% to 0.2% per sexual contact for receptive vaginal …

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