Tags: Tuberculosis

Leishmania

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlTRYPANOSOMAAmerican Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ Disease)African TrypanosomiasisTable 1. Differential Diagnosis of leishmaniasis. BOX 1. Treatment of LeishmaniasisBOX 2. Control of LeishmaniasisBOX 3. Treatment of American TrypanosomiasisBOX 4. Control of American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ Disease)BOX 5. Treatment of African TrypanosomiasisBOX 6. Control of African TrypanosomiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCLeishmania & Trypanosoma The genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the family Trypanosomatidae. These protozoans cause diseases with widely varied clinical presentations as well as geographic distributions, including leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease), and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). For example, the endemic zones for African and American trypanosomiasis do not overlap, the diseases …

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Toxoplasma Gondii

ContentsGeneral ConsiderationsToxoplasma Gondii: Clinical Findings Clinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsToxoplasma Gondii: TreatmentPrevention & ControlTable 1. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.Table 2. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology in pregnant women.1BOX 1. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Toxoplasmosis1BOX 2. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent PatientsBOX 3. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant WomenBOX 4. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in NewbornsBOX 5. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised PatientsBOX 6. Prevention of Primary T gondii Infection1BOX 7. Primary Prophylaxis in Immunodeficient PatientsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCGeneral Considerations A. Epidemiology. Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes …

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Chromomycosis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Patients are usually immunocompetent. • Found worldwide but usually in tropical or subtropical areas. • Mold in culture; forms sclerotic body or muriform cell in tissue. • Infection results from direct inoculation from contaminated soil or vegetative substances. • Chronic indolent cutaneous verrucous lesions, most often on the feet. General Considerations Chromomycosis, also known as chromoblastomycosis, is a chronic subcutaneous infection caused by several different fungi. Although rarely seen in the United States, it is common worldwide. A. Epidemiology. Chromomycosis occurs worldwide but is most frequently encountered in tropical …

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Paracoccidioidomycosis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Patients usually immunocompetent. • Patients in endemic areas with chronic pulmonary and mucotaneous lesions involving the mouth, nose, larynx, and face; regional or diffuse lymphadenopathy. • Found in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina. • Dimorphic fungus: yeast form in tissue specimens and at 37 °C; mold form when grown at room temperature in the laboratory. • Thick-walled yeast, 4-40 um, with multiple buds when seen in tissue specimens. • Complement fixation or immunodiffusion. General Considerations Paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Also known as South American blastomycosis, it …

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Penicillium Infections

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Penicillium marneffei infection found in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. • P marneffei found in Southeast Asia and southern China. • Mold, septate hyphae 1.5-5 um in diameter. • May be cultured from a variety of specimens including blood. • Penicillium spp. other than P marneffei occur worldwide. • Infection with Penicillium spp. is rare; occurs in immunosuppressed patients. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Penicillium spp. are ubiquitous in nature and may be recovered with ease from a variety of sources within the hospital environment. These molds commonly contaminate clinical …

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Sporothrix Schenckii

Essentials of Diagnosis • Cigar-shaped yeast. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Associated with activities that involve contact with soil, sphagnum moss, decaying wood, or vegetation. • Gardeners, forestry workers, miners, animal health care providers most at risk. • Raised skin lesions with proximal spread along lymphatic channels. • Recovery of microorganism from culture. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a ubiquitous fungus commonly found in the soil, on sphagnum …

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Aspergilloma

An aspergilloma of the lung may develop in individuals who have preexisting cavitary lung disease caused by conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, silicosis, or bronchiectasis. Also known as a fungus ball or mycetoma, aspergillomas can be regarded as heavy Aspergillus colonization of the preexisting cavity. Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. The most common symptom is hemoptysis, and, on rare occasions, severe or fatal hemoptysis can develop. Other symptoms are usually related to the underlying lung disease. B. Laboratory Findings. Patients with an aspergilloma of the lung typically have elevated IgG levels specific for Aspergillus spp. Sputum smear …

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Blastomyces Dermatitidis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Round thick-walled yeast with broad-based budding. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Associated with activities in proximity to waterways. • Associated with exposure to dust, eg excavation. • Endemic in states surrounding the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. • Pyogranulomas on histopathological examination. • Acute or chronic infection of lung, skin, bone, or genitourinary tract. • …

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Histoplasma Capsulatum

 Essentials of Diagnosis • Thin-walled oval yeast measuring 2-4 mm in diameter. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Endemic within Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. • Associated with activities that disturb dust or soil enriched with bird, chicken, and bat excrement. • Complement fixation antibody titer 1:32 or greater. • Simultaneous appearance of anti-H and anti-M antibodies. • Infection most often is asymptomatic or may cause chronic pulmonary infection; less commonly, disseminated …

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Bartonella

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESBacillary AngiomatosisCAT SCRATCH DISEASEClinical FindingsB BACILLIFORMIS-ASSOCIATED DISEASEFever & Bacteremia/Trench Fever/EndocarditisTable 1. Clinical Manifestations of Bartonella InfectionsBOX 1. Bartonella Infection SyndromesBOX 2. Treatment of Bartonella InfectionsBOX 3. Control of Bartonella InfectionsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key signs and symptoms include dermal lesion (bacillary angiomatosis and chronic phase of Bartonella bacilliformis infection); papule at inoculation site followed by proximal lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease); fever, bacteremia, acute hemolytic anemia (acute phase of B bacilliformis infection); persistent or relapsing fever (fever and bacteremia/endocarditis). • Predisposing factors include louse exposure, low income, and homelessness (Bartonella quintana-associated bacillary angiomatosis, fever, and bacteremia/endocarditis); …

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