Tags: Ticarcillin

Important Anaerobes

Essentials of Diagnosis • Foul odor of draining purulence. • Presence of gas in tissues. • No organism growth on aerobic culture media. • Infection localized in the proximity of mucosal surface. • Presence of septic thrombophlebitis. • Tissue necrosis and abscess formation. • Association with malignancies (especially intestinal). • Mixed organism morphologies on Gram stain. General Considerations A. Epidemiology and Ecology. Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant component of the normal microbial flora of the human body. The following sites harbor the vast majority of them: • Skin: Mostly gram-positive bacilli such as Propionibacterium acnes • Gastrointestinal tract: In the oral cavity Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., microaerophillic streptococci, and …

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Toxin-Mediated Infections

1. TETANUS Tetanus is a disease of global incidence produced by the toxin of Clostridium tetani. The risk of acquiring it increases in people > 60 years of age and in neonates, especially in Third World countries where poor sanitary conditions predispose to umbilical stump contamination. Immunization campaigns have played a crucial role in bringing about the observed decreasing incidence in the United States. The pathogenesis of tetanus involves the absorption of preformed toxin, or, less commonly, invasion of toxin-producing organisms from contaminated wounds; it may complicate surgical wounds colonized with C tetani. Incubation periods vary depending on the portal of entry. The toxin tetanospasmin blocks the transmission of inhibitory neurons, …

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Branhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical Syndromes

B catarrhalis causes bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a rare cause of invasive disease, including meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia without a focus, septic arthritis, and cellulitis. In addition, it is a recognized cause of acute conjunctivitis and is periodically mistaken as Neisseria gonorrhoeae in newborn infants with conjunctivitis. B catarrhalis occasionally colonizes the genital mucosa and has been reported as a cause of urethritis. Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. The signs and symptoms of B catarrhalis acute otitis media and sinusitis are indistinguishable from those present when acute otitis media and sinusitis are caused by other pathogens (Box 8). …

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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Essentials of Diagnosis • Nosocomial acquisition. • Predisposing factors include immunosuppression (neutropenia, cystic fibrosis [CF], AIDS, corticosteroid use, diabetes mellitus); presence of a foreign body, prosthesis, or instrumentation; prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use; intravenous drug use. • Most common infections include pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, otitis media, skin and skin structure infections, including ecthyma gangrenosa. • Gram stain shows gram-negative bacilli; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other tissue. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The genus Pseudomonas consists of a number of human pathogens, the most important of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found widely in soil, water, and organic material, reflecting its limited …

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Other Pseudomonas Species of Medical Importance

P PSEUDOMALLEI MELIOIDOSIS This organism is endemic in Southeast Asia with the highest prevalence in Thailand. The organism is a saprophyte living in the soil. Infection may be subclinical, acute, subacute, or chronic. Pulmonary infection is most common. Histologically, the acute illness is represented by lung abscesses and the subacute form by caseation necrosis. Upper lobe cavities must be distinguished from those caused by tuberculosis. Debilitated patients may develop hematogenous spread of the organism to other organs. Skin lesions from direct inoculation cause suppurative lesions often in association with nodular lymphangitis and regional lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis is made in a patient from an endemic area with a compatible clinical illness who has …

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Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970′s for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) …

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Penicillins: Organs and Systems

Respiratory Bronchospasm may be a consequence of penicillin allergy. Acute severe dyspnea with cyanosis has also been observed without symptoms of bronchial obstruction or pulmonary edema. Specific mechanisms for such cases have yet to be identified. Allergic pneumonitis and transient eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrate (Loeffler’s syndrome) are rare. These syndromes have also been observed with penicillin hypersensitivity. In one case, an alveolar allergic reaction, probably due to ampicillin, showed features of an adult respiratory distress syndrome. Nervous system High doses of penicillins, in the order of several million units/day of penicillin G, can produce myoclonic jerks, hyper-reflexia, seizures, or coma. Drowsiness and hallucinations can occur occasionally. Such reactions are due to a …

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Penicillins: Organs and Systems: Hematologic

Since the days when chloramphenicol was more commonly used, it has been recognized that many antimicrobial drug are associated with severe blood dyscrasias, such as aplastic anemia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, throm-bocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Information on this association has come predominantly from case series and hospital surveys (38^. Some evidence can be extracted from population-based studies that have focused on aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis and their association with many drugs, including antimicrobial drugs. The incidence rates of blood dyscrasias in the general population have been estimated in a cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, using data from a General Practice Research Database in Spain. The study population consisted of 822048 patients …

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Order Zithromax Online No Prescription 250/500mg

Azithromycin: Organs and Systems Cardiovascular Torsade de pointes and cardiorespiratory arrest have been reported in a patient with congenital long QT syndrome who took azithromycin. In a prospective study of 47 previously healthy people, there was a modest statistically insignificant prolongation of the QTC interval without clinical consequences after the end of a course of azithromycin 3 g/day for 5 days. Sensory systems Ears Azithromycin can cause ototoxicity. In one study, 8 (17%) of 46 HIV-positive patients had probable (n = 6) or possible (n = 2) ototoxicity with azithromycin. The effects were hearing loss (88%), tinnitus (37%), plugged ears (37%), and vertigo (25%), developing at a mean of 7.6 weeks …

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Anaerobic & Necrotizing Infections

Description of Medical Condition Gangrene is local death of soft tissues due to disease or injury and is associated with loss of blood supply. Anaerobic and necrotizing infections may be associated with gas. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Cardiovascular Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Rare Predominant age: Any Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Local pain • Foul odor • Abnormally dark skin and tissues under skin (dark green to black) • Crepitation (gas) • Fever • Rapid pulse • Fulminant course leading to death without treatment What Causes Disease? • Local injury • Superimposed infection (surface or deep; local or distant) • Carcinoma of large intestine …

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