Tags: Telithromycin

Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Overview Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants. The drugs differ mainly in their spectrum of activity (the organisms against which the agent is effective), side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, and dose form availability. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against a wide range of pathogens; narrow-spectrum antibiotics tend to be efficacious against a narrower range of bacterial species, generally either gram-positive or gram-negative organisms. TABLE:Mechanisms of Resistance Against Select Antibacterial Classes, […]

Penicillins

Overview The penicillins comprise several subgroups of agents with a wide range of bacterial coverage and efficacy. Each penicillin molecule contains a basic β-lactam structure fused to a five-membered ring. Because of their broad spectrum of activity and availability in oral form, the penicillins are commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and have become the drugs of choice in treating many common infections. The penicillins are divided into the following groups: natural penicillins, aminopenicillins, and the extended-spectrum penicillins. The natural penicillins (e.g., penicillin G) have the narrowest spectrum. They are active only against the gram-positive cocci; in community-acquired pneumonia, they are active essentially against S. pneumoniae only. The aminopenicillins […]

Ketolides – New Class of Macrolide Derivatives

Ketolides are a new class of macrolide derivatives designed specifically to combat macrolide-resistant respiratory tract pathogens. The ketolides exhibit good activity against gram-positive and some gram-negative organisms and have excellent activity against drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, including macrolide-resistant strains. Spontaneous resistance to the available ketolide, telithromycin, is rare. Ketolides display excellent pharmacokinetics that allow once-daily dose administration and extensive tissue distribution relative to serum. The ketolide telithromycin is well tolerated; its side effects are primarily gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, nausea, and headache). Mechanism Of Action Like the macrolides, ketolides act by binding to the 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the 50S subunit of the ribosome. Binding to the 23S rRNA inhibits the translocation […]

Ketolides: Cethromycin

Overview Ketolides are a new class of antibacterials specially designed to combat respiratory tract pathogens that have acquired resistance to macrolides. The ketolides are derivatives of the macrolide erythromycin A. Telithromycin (Sanofi-Aventis' s Ketek) is the first and only member of this new class to be approved for clinical use. The ketolides exhibit good activity against gram-positive and some gram-negative organisms, but their main advantage is their excellent activity against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae. Resistance to existing macrolide antibiotics creates an important commercial opportunity for entry of the "next-generation" macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are currently a preferred class of antibacterials for first-line treatment of RTIs because of their spectrum of activity and ease […]

Ketolides

Ketolides are a new class of macrolide derivatives designed specifically to combat macro fide-resistant respiratory tract pathogens. The ketolides are semisynthetic derivatives of the macrolide erythromycin A, with a keto group replacing the 1-cladinose group at position 3 of the macrolactone ring. The ketolides exhibit good activity against gram-positive and some gram-negative organisms, and have excellent activity against drug-resistant S. pneumoniae, including macrolide-resistant strains. Ketolides display excellent pharmacokinetics, allowing once-daily dose administration and extensive tissue distribution relative to serum. The available ketolide, telithromycin, is well tolerated with side effects primarily being GI symptoms (diarrhea, nausea, and headache). Mechanism Of Action Ketolides, similar to the macrolides, act by binding to the 23S […]

Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis: Current therapies

Overview Numerous highly effective pharmacological agents are available to treat acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis). TABLE: Pharmacological Management of Underlying Disease During an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the general pharmacological agents and classes used to manage acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The primary therapies used in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis treat the causative infection (antibiotics), relieve symptoms (bronchodilators), and treat the underlying inflammation (corticosteroids). TABLE: Current Therapies Used for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the leading antibiotic therapies used to treat the infection. Most acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis cases require empiric antibiotic therapy because of the difficulty in definitively distinguishing exacerbations […]

Celsentry (Maraviroc)

Celsentry film-coated tablets 150mg,300mg (Maraviroc) What Celsentri is and what it is used for Read indications for use if you want to order Maraviroc online Celsentri is an antiretroviral medicine used in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Its active ingredient, maraviroc, belongs to a group of medicines called CCR5 antagonists. Celsentri prevents the entry of HIV-1 into the cells in your blood that are attacked by HIV (called CD4 or T-cells). Celsentri works by blocking a receptor called CCR5 that HIV use to gain entry into these cells. Celsentri reduces the amount of HIV in your body and enhances your immune system. Celsentri must be taken in combination […]

Pneumonia, bacterial

Description of Medical Condition An acute, bacterial infection of the lung parenchyma. Infection may be community-acquired or nosocomial (hospital acquired by an inpatient for at least 48 hours or inpatient in the previous 90 days). Most commonly, community-acquired disease is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is usually due to gram negative rods (60%, such as Pseudomonas) or Staphylococcus (30%). System(s) affected: Pulmonary Genetics: No known genetic pattern Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Incidence-community-acquired: 1200 cases/100,000 population per year Incidence — nosocomial: 800 cases/100,000 admissions per year Predominant age: Age extremes Predominant sex: Male > Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease Cardinal signs and symptoms Cough and fever Chest […]

Telithromycin

Drug Nomenclature International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish): Synonyms: HMR-3647; RU-66647; Telitromicina BAN: Telithromycin USAN: Telithromycin INN: Telithromycin [rINN (en)] INN: Telitromicina [rINN (es)] INN: Télithromycine [rINN (fr)] INN: Telithromycinum [rINN (la)] INN: Телитромицин [rINN (ru)] Chemical name: (3aS,4R,7R,9R,10R,11R,13R,15R,15aR)-4-Ethyloctahydro-11-methoxy-3a,7,9,11,13,15-hexamethyl-1-{4-[4-(3-pyridyl)imidazol-1-yl]butyl}-10-{[3,4,6-trideoxy-3-(dimethylamino)-β-d-xylo-hexopyranosyl]oxy}-2H-oxacyclotetradecino[4,3-d][1,3]oxazole-2,6,8,14(1H,7H,9H)-tetrone Molecular formula: C43H65N5O10 =812.0 CAS: 173838-31-8; 191114-48-4 ATC code: J01FA15 Adverse Effects Diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal disturbances such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and flatulence are among the most common adverse reactions after use of telithromycin. Severe, but usually reversible, hepatic dysfunction, including elevation of liver enzymes and hepatitis, with or without jaundice has been reported; however, there have been cases of fatal hepatotoxicity including fulminant […]

Case: Antibacterial agents. Class

The basic principles for the selection of antibacterial therapy include consideration of factors such as the likelihood that the infection is bacterial and the identification of the likely infecting organism to support a rational selection of an antibiotic. Consideration of host and drug factors that could influence antibiotic selection include identification of the site of infection, which will influence the selection of the antibiotic and its route of administration; recognition of concomitant diseases such as AIDS; recognition of the likelihood of drug allergies; recognition of hepatic or renal dysfunction that could alter antibiotic clearance; and recognition of drug toxicity, drug-drug interactions, drug resistance, the patient's age or pregnancy or maternal status; […]

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