Tags: Sulfisoxazole

Pathogenic Amebas

ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA & ENTAMOEBA DISPAR Essentials of Diagnosis Patient living in or having traveled to endemic area increases risk. Frequent loose stools with blood and mucus. Demonstration of cyst or trophozoite on stool wet mount or in biopsy specimen. Serology positive within 7-10 days of infection, may remain positive for years after infection resolved. Monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction emerging; may help differentiate E histolytica and E dispar. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. There are numerous distinct species of ameba within the genus Entamoeba, and the majority of these do not cause disease in humans. E histolytica is a pathogenic species that is capable of causing disease, such as colitis or …

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Haemophilus, Bordetella, & Branhamella Species

HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE & OTHER HAEMOPHILUS SPECIES Essentials of Diagnosis • Haemophilus influenzae is generally acquired via the aerosol route or by direct contact with respiratory secretions. • The most common associated syndromes include otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, and, to a lesser extent, meningitis, epiglottitis, arthritis, and cellulitis. • Gram stain shows pleomorphic gram-negative coccobacilli. • In cases of meningitis, epiglottitis, arthritis, and cellulitis, organisms are typically recovered from blood, and type-b polysaccharide capsular material may be detected in the urine. • Organisms and type-b polysaccharide capsule may also be present in other appropriate sterile body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in meningitis and joint fluid in arthritis. General …

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Haemophilus Influenzae: Clinical Syndromes

H influenzae was first isolated during the 1892 influenza pandemic and was originally believed to be the causative agent of influenza. Although subsequent studies revealed the fallacy of this idea, H influenzae has proved to be a common cause of localized respiratory tract and systemic disease, including meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, pyogenic arthritis, cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis, among others (Box 1). 1. MENINGITIS Meningitis is the most common and serious form of invasive H influenzae type-b disease. In the mid-1980s, before the introduction of effective vaccines, ~ 10,000-12,000 cases of H influenzae type-b meningitis occurred in the United States each year, and 95% of cases involved children < 5 years old. …

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Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Antibiotics Before prescribing a specific antibiotic, clinicians should be able to answer these questions: •  How does the antibiotic kill or inhibit bacterial growth? •  What are the antibiotic’s toxicities and how should they be monitored? •  How is the drug metabolized, and what are the dosing recommendations? Does the dosing schedule need to be modified in patients with renal dysfunction? •  What are the indications for using each specific antibiotic? •  How broad is the antibiotic’s antimicrobial spectrum? •  How much does the antibiotic cost? Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in …

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Respiratory Tract Infections, Upper

Otitis media Definition Otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear. Acute otitis media involves the rapid onset of signs and symptoms of inflammation in the middle ear that manifests clinically as one or more of the following: otalgia (denoted by pulling of the ear in some infants), hearing loss, fever, or irritability. Otitis media with effusion (accumulation of liquid in the middle ear cavity) differs from acute otitis media in that signs and symptoms of an acute infection are absent. Otitis media is the most frequent diagnosis in infants and children. Risk factors contributing to increased incidence of otitis media include the winter season, attendance at a day care …

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Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative …

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Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

Mechanisms of toxicity The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity. In contrast, the major toxicity of the penicillins and cephalosporins is due to allergic reactions. These differences are explained in part by the relative ability of specific drugs to inhibit enzymatic pathways in the host versus their stimulation of specific immune response. Not included in these lists is mention of the …

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Rifampin: Uses

• Tuberculosis • Active Tuberculosis Rifampin is used in conjunction with other antituberculosis agents for the treatment of clinical tuberculosis. The American Thoracic Society (ATS), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) currently recommend several possible multiple-drug regimens for the treatment of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. These regimens have a minimum duration of 6 months (26 weeks), and consist of an initial intensive phase (2 months) and a continuation phase (usually either 4 or 7 months). Rifampin is considered a first-line antituberculosis agent for the treatment of all forms of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis known or presumed to be susceptible to the drug, …

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Sulfisoxazole, Sulfisoxazole Acetyl

• Sulfisoxazole is a short-acting sulfonamide. Uses Sulfisoxazole and its derivatives share the actions and uses of the sulfonamides. The relative solubility of the drug in alkaline and slightly acidic urine makes the drug particularly useful for the treatment of urinary tract infections. A combination product containing sulfisoxazole acetyl and erythromycin ethylsuccinate is commercially available for the treatment of acute otitis media caused by susceptible strains of Haemophilus influenzae in children and is usually active against ampicillin-resistant strains of the organism. For information on dosage and administration of the combination product. Although sulfisoxazole-containing creams previously have been used intravaginally in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (formerly called Haemophilus vaginitis, Gardnerella vaginitis, …

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Buy Bactrim (Co-trimoxazole) 400mg/800mg No Prescription

Co-trimoxazole: Uses • Urinary Tract Infections Co-trimoxazole is used for the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by susceptible strains of E. coli, Proteus (indole-positive or -negative), Klebsiella, Morganella morganii, or Enterobacter. Co-trimoxazole, given in single doses, as 3-day therapy, or for 7-10 days, is effective in the treatment of acute uncomplicated UTIs. Some clinicians consider a 3-day regimen of co-trimoxazole the treatment of choice for the empiric treatment of acute uncomplicated UTIs. Co-trimoxazole also is used for the treatment of acute complicated UTIs (e.g., UTIs associated with abnormalities of the urinary tract or neurogenic bladder), but other anti-infectives are preferred by most clinicians. For the treatment of acute pyelonephritis, …

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