Tags: Staphylococcal infections

Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970′s for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) …

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Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Definition Bacterial infections of the skin can be classified as primary (pyodermas or cellulitis) or secondary (invasion of the wound) (Table Bacterial Classification of Important Skin and Soft Tissue Infections). Primary bacterial infections are usually caused by a single bacterial species and involve areas of generally healthy skin (e.g., impetigo, erysipelas). Secondary infections, however, develop in areas of previously damaged skin and are frequently polymicrobic in nature. The conditions that may predispose a patient to the development of skin and soft tissue infections include (1) a high concentration of bacteria, (2) excessive moisture of the skin, (3) inadequate blood supply, (4) availability of bacterial nutrients, and (5) damage to the corneal …

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Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

Mechanisms of toxicity The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity. In contrast, the major toxicity of the penicillins and cephalosporins is due to allergic reactions. These differences are explained in part by the relative ability of specific drugs to inhibit enzymatic pathways in the host versus their stimulation of specific immune response. Not included in these lists is mention of the …

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Management of Bacterial Meningitis

Central nervous system infections, especially bacterial meningitis, are frequently life-threatening and usually constitute medical emergencies that require accurate and prompt treatment. (Portions of this section about meningitis have previously been published [Swartz and O'Hanley 1987] and are reproduced with permission of the publisher, Scientific American Medicine, New York. [Send permission to section editor.]) Fortunately, advances in methods of diagnosis and treatment developed during the past 15 years have significantly improved the prognosis associated with many of these illnesses. New diagnostic methods (such as latex agglutination and polymerase chain reaction) supplement rather than supplant cerebrospinal fluid studies. The cerebrospinal fluid studies frequently provide important initial information needed for clinical and microbiologic diagnosis; …

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Penicillins

Penicillin G Penicillin G is an acid that is combined with sodium, potassium, procaine, or benzathine to increase its stability or to regulate its absorption. The latter two are “long-acting” forms. Penicillin G is useful in the treatment of streptococcal infections due to S. pyogenes (group A), S. agalactiae (group B), S. pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, Corynebacterium diphtheria, N. meningitidis, many strains of N. gonorrhea, Treponema pallidum, and many anaerobic streptococci, such as peptococcus and peptostreptococcus. In combination with aminoglycosides, any penicillin G compounds can be used to treat enterococci and L. monocytogenes infections. These organisms cause many clinical syndromes including cellulitis, pharyngitis, pneumonia, septicemia, endocarditis, meningitis, abscesses in lung, sexually transmitted …

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Chloromycetin 250mg Tablets (Chloramphenicol)

Vancomycin and teicoplanin are the only members of this class of antibiotics. Vancomycin is a high-molecular-weight glycopeptide that is bactericidal for gram-positive microorganisms. It inhibits cell-wall synthesis. Given parenterally, it is the drug of choice for methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections. It should be used as an alternative for methicillin-sensitive staphylococci if the patient is allergic to penicillin. Vancomycin is also active against strains of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, Leuconostoc spp., and Pediococcus spp. Some strains of Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and enterococci are resistant to vancomycin. Based on considerable clinical experience, there is a lack of clinical evidence to use combinations of aminoglycosides or rifampin with parenteral vancomycin to treat staphylococcal infections. However, treatment …

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Rifampin

• Rifampin is a rifamycin B-derivative antibiotic that is active against mycobacteria and some gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Drug Interactions • Antiretroviral Agents Rifamycin derivatives (e.g., rifampin, rifabutin) can accelerate the metabolism of certain antiretroviral agents (i.e., HIV protease inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs]) by induction of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) oxidases, which may result in subtherapeutic plasma concentrations of some of these protease inhibitors and NNRTIs. 194 Rifampin also can affect the pharmacokinetics of some nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g., zidovudine). In addition, HIV protease inhibitors and some NNRTIs (e.g., delavirdine) reduce the metabolism of rifamycins, leading to increased plasma concentrations of rifamycins and an increased risk of toxicity. The …

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Vancomycin Hydrochloride: Cautions

• Otic and Renal Effects Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity are the most serious adverse effects of parenteral vancomycin therapy. To date, these adverse effects have not been reported in patients receiving vancomycin orally. The incidences of ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity have not been well established, but clinical experience to date suggests that these adverse effects occur relatively infrequently. Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity are most likely to occur in patients who have renal impairment, who are receiving IV vancomycin in high doses or for prolonged periods, or who are receiving other ototoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs. (See Drug Interactions: Ototoxic and Nephrotoxic Drugs.) Although ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity have been associated with serum or blood vancomycin concentrations …

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Vancomycin Hydrochloride: Uses

IV vancomycin hydrochloride is used in the treatment of potentially life-threatening infections caused by susceptible organisms which cannot be treated with other effective, less toxic anti-infective agents. Vancomycin is used principally for the treatment of severe infections caused by gram-positive bacteria in patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to penicillins and cephalosporins or for the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections that are resistant to b-lactams and other anti-infectives. • Drug Use Guidelines for the Prevention of Vancomycin Resistance Use of, and exposure to, anti-infectives are major risk factors for the emergence of anti-infective-resistant pathogens, and anti-infective resistance results in increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Prevention of …

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Bacitracin

• Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic. Uses • Staphylococcal Infections IM bacitracin has been used in infants with pneumonia and empyema caused by staphylococci that are susceptible to the drug; however, use of bacitracin has, in most cases, been replaced by penicillinase-resistant penicillins or cephalosporins for infections caused by penicillinase-producing staphylococci and by vancomycin for resistant strains. Penicillin is the drug of choice in infections caused by susceptible strains of nonpenicillinase-producing staphylococci. If bacitracin is used, the patient should be closely observed, and adequate laboratory facilities should be available. • Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea and Colitis Bacitracin has been used orally in a limited number of patients for the treatment of Clostridium …

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