Tags: Relapsing fever

Babesia SPP.

Essentials of Diagnosis Nonspecific clinical manifestations. Exposure: tick exposure, blood transfusion, or both. Morphologic, serologic, or molecular evidence of infection. General Considerations The members of the genera Babesia and Theileria are protozoan parasites. These organisms are of medical, veterinary, and economic importance. Babesia species cause disease in humans and animals. The genus Theileria is the etiologic agent of cattle fever in Eurasia and Africa; it has also been implicated in human disease. Common to both genera is an intra-erythrocytic phase. These organisms develop pear-shaped intra-erythrocytic ring forms and are therefore referred to as piroplasms. An exo-erythrocytic schizont stage has been demonstrated only for Theileria species. Babesia species were first discovered in …

Continue Reading...

Bartonella

Essentials of Diagnosis Key signs and symptoms include dermal lesion (bacillary angiomatosis and chronic phase of Bartonella bacilliformis infection); papule at inoculation site followed by proximal lymphadenopathy (cat scratch disease); fever, bacteremia, acute hemolytic anemia (acute phase of B bacilliformis infection); persistent or relapsing fever (fever and bacteremia/endocarditis). Predisposing factors include louse exposure, low income, and homelessness (Bartonella quintana-associated bacillary angiomatosis, fever, and bacteremia/endocarditis); cat exposure (cat scratch disease and Bartonella henselae-associated bacillary angiomatosis, fever and bacteremia/endocarditis); sandfly exposure in endemic areas of South American Andes (B bacilliformis infection). History of HIV or immunocompromise (bacillary angiomatosis). Key laboratory findings include small, curved, pleomorphic weakly gram-negative bacilli, best visualized with Warthin-Starry silver …

Continue Reading...

Borrelia & Leptospira Species

BORRELIA SPECIES RELAPSING FEVER Essentials of Diagnosis The most common presentation is fever with rash, headache, shaking chills, myalgias, arthralgias, and — during the acute phase — hepatosplenomegaly. Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is epidemic, caused by B. recurrentis, and characterized by one or two relapses. Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is endemic, caused by several Borrelia species, and characterized by multiple clinical relapses. Organisms can be visualized in blood smears of febrile patients, unlike other spirochetal pathogens, using dark-field microscopy or Giemsa or Wright stains. Helical (3-10 spirals) spirochetes, 8-30 um × 0.3 um, motile (flagella). Weil-Felix reaction: Proteus OX-K agglutinin titers are elevated (this is more common in LBRF). General Considerations …

Continue Reading...

Lyme Disease

Essentials of Diagnosis Most common in the northeastern, upper midwestern, and western parts of the United States. Borrelia burgdorferi is the longest (20-30 um) and narrowest (0.2-0.3 um) spirochete member of the Borrelia genus and has the fewest flagella (7-11). Erythema migrans (EM) is a red expanding lesion with central clearing that is commonly seen during the early stage of Lyme disease. The most common systems affected are the skin (EM), the joints (arthritis), the CNS (facial palsy), and the heart (conduction defects). Serology is not standardized; it is insensitive in early infection and does not distinguish active from inactive infection. Grows in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium from skin biopsy and other specimens. …

Continue Reading...

Treponema Pallidum

Essentials of Diagnosis Spiral, motile, coil-shaped, elongated (0.10 um × 5-20 um) spirochete. No reliable method for sustained in vitro cultivation. Direct detection with darkfield microscopy or immunofluorescent antibody in early syphilis. Nontreponemal antibody tests (rapid plasma reagin, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL]) for screening, treatment follow-up. Treponema-specific antibody tests (fluorescent treponemal antibody test, microhemagglutination-T pallidum test) for confirmation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis, elevated CSF protein, or reactive CSF VDRL test suggests neurosyphilis. PCR, DNA probes, and immunoblotting techniques promising in congenital syphilis, early syphilis, or neurosyphilis. All patients with T pallidum infection should be tested for HIV coinfection and vice versa. General Considerations The term syphilis was first used in …

Continue Reading...

Order Cheap generic Tetracycline (Sumycin) No Prescription 250 – 500mg

Tetracycline: Organs and Systems Cardiovascular Cardiovascular reactions to tetracyclines have often been associated with other symptoms of hypersensitivity, such as urticaria, angioedema, bronchial obstruction, and arterial hypotension. Such reactions occurred in patients who had tolerated tetracyclines previously and were therefore considered as anaphylactic. Respiratory There have been a few cases of acute bronchial obstruction after the administration of a tetracycline. Pneumonitis with eosinophilia has also been described. When pleural tetracycline instillation is used to produce local inflammation for pleurodesis in spontaneous pneumothorax, there are no severe short-term or long-term adverse effects. Nervous system Tetracyclines rarely cause benign intracranial hypertension. This syndrome has primarily involved children, although it has also been observed …

Continue Reading...

Buy Without Prescription Sumycin (Tetracycline) 250 and 500 mg

Tetracycline: General Adverse Effects Mild gastrointestinal disturbances are common. A common and nearly unique feature of all tetracyclines is the formation of drug-melanin complexes, resulting in pigment deposition at various sites. Except for enamel defects and presumable disturbances of osteogenesis these deposits do not give rise to abnormalities of organ function. In view of tooth discoloration and enamel hypo-plasia, with a tendency to caries formation, tetracyclines should be avoided in children under 8 years of age and in women after the third month of pregnancy. The risk of photosensitivity reactions largely depends on the dose of the drug and the degree of exposure to sunlight. It may be increased in long-term …

Continue Reading...

Order Chloromycetin (Chloramphenicol) No Prescription 250mg

Chloramphenicol: Side Effects Chloramphenicol is one of the older broad-spectrum antibiotics. It was introduced in 1948 and grew in popularity because of its high antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, Rickettsiae, Chlamydia, and Mycoplasma species. It is particularly useful in infections caused by Salmonella typhi and Haemophilus influenzae. It is mainly bacteriostatic. It readily crosses tissue barriers and diffuses rapidly into nearly all tissues and body fluids. The main route of elimination of chloramphenicol is metabolic transformation by glucuronidation. The micro-biologically inactive metabolites are excreted rapidly and only a small proportion of unchanged drug is excreted in the urine. The usual daily dose is 50 mg/kg …

Continue Reading...

Tetracyclines General Statement: Cautions

• GI Effects The most frequent adverse reactions to tetracyclines are dose-related GI effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bulky loose stools, anorexia, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, and epigastric burning and distress. Stomatitis, glossitis, dysphagia, sore throat, hoarseness, black hairy tongue, pancreatitis, and inflammatory lesions in the anogenital region with candidal overgrowth have also been reported occasionally. GI effects occur most frequently when tetracyclines are administered orally, but may also occur when the drugs are administered IM or IV. In clinical trials in which combined therapy with tetracycline hydrochloride, metronidazole, and bismuth subsalicylate was used for the treatment of H. pylori infection and associated duodenal ulcer, adverse effects generally were related to the …

Continue Reading...

Tetracyclines General Statement: Uses

Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Because of the development of resistance, tetracyclines are rarely used for the treatment of infections caused by common gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria unless other appropriate anti-infectives are contraindicated or are ineffective and in vitro susceptibility tests indicate that the causative organisms are susceptible to the drugs. Generally, given a susceptible organism, the currently available tetracyclines are all equally effective when administered in appropriate dosages. Because minocycline and, to a lesser extent, doxycycline penetrate most body tissues and fluids better than do other currently available tetracyclines, some clinicians …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE