Tags: Psittacosis

Chlamydia Psittaci Infections

Essentials of Diagnosis History of contact with birds. Positive C psittaci-specific microimmunofluorescence serologies. Positive complement fixation titers (not species specific). Clinical Findings Signs and Symptoms Pneumonia, pericarditis, myocarditis, and endocarditis have been attributed to C psittaci infection (psittacosis or ornithosis) (Box 5). The incubation period for the pneumonia is usually 1-2 weeks. Its onset is gradual with body temperature increasing over a period of 5-7 days; however, there are cases in which the onset is sudden with rigors and temperatures as high as 104 °F. Headache is a salient and important symptom; it can be severe and incapacitating. Cough is usually nonproductive and hacking; however, on occasion a mucoid sputum or […]

Chlamydia Pneumoniae

Description of Medical Condition Chlamydia pneumoniae an obligate intracellular bacteria, has been established as an important cause of adult respiratory disease including pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis and pharyngitis. There is no animal reservoir. System(s) affected: Pulmonary Genetics: No known genetic predisposition Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Estimated incidence of 100 to 200 cases of pneumonia/100,000/ year. Accounts for 6 to 12% of pneumonias and 3 to 6% of bronchitis cases. Numbers do not necessarily apply to all areas. Incidence of subclinical infection much greater. Predominant age: Less common in children under 5 years. Pneumonia more common in elderly. Predominant sex: Male > Female (10-25% more) Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease 70% to 90% […]


Description of Medical Condition Systemic bacterial infection caused by Brucella species in infected animal products, or vaccine. Incubation period usually 5-60 days, but highly variable and may be several months. Characterized by intermittent or irregular fevers, with symptoms ranging from subclinical disease to infection of almost any organ system. Bone and joint involvement common. May be chronic or recurrent. Case fatality untreated less than 2%. System(s) affected: Endocrine/Metabolic, Gastrointestinal, Renal/Urologic, Pulmonary, Nervous, Skin/Exocrine, Musculoskeletal, Cardiovascular Genetics: None; some evidence for intrauterine transmission Incidence/Prevalence in USA: About 100/year (105 cases in 1992; 0.34/100,000), but probably underreported Common in developing countries; consider in immigrants Highest rates in Hispanic population, along US-Mexico border Considered […]

Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Antibiotics Before prescribing a specific antibiotic, clinicians should be able to answer these questions: How does the antibiotic kill or inhibit bacterial growth? What are the antibiotic's toxicities and how should they be monitored? How is the drug metabolized, and what are the dosing recommendations? Does the dosing schedule need to be modified in patients with renal dysfunction? What are the indications for using each specific antibiotic? How broad is the antibiotic's antimicrobial spectrum? How much does the antibiotic cost? Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in each class can be subtle, often […]

Epidemiologic and virulence factors in infectious diseases

Epidemiologic considerations Before appropriate therapy can be given for an infectious disease, consideration of epidemiologic factors is essential. This section does not fully discuss the epidemiology (the determinants, occurrence, distribution, and control of health and disease) of infectious diseases. However, a number of basic principles and historical points are worth emphasizing. Basic principles of transmission. An infectious disease results from the interaction between an infectious agent and a susceptible host. The agent may originate from a source external to the host (exogenous infection), or, because of changes in the agent–host relationship, a normally occurring, usually innocuous, microbial agent on skin or mucosal surfaces can produce disease (endogenous infection). The relationship among […]

Buy Vibramycin (Doxycycline) Without Prescription 100mg

Doxycycline Calcium, Doxycycline Hyclate, Doxycycline Monohydrate: Dosage and Administration Reconstitution and Administration Doxycycline calcium, doxycycline hyclate, and doxycycline monohydrate are administered orally. When oral therapy is not feasible, doxycycline hyclate may be administered by slow IV infusion; however, oral therapy should replace IV therapy as soon as possible. If doxycycline is given IV, the risk of thrombophlebitis should be considered. Oral Administration To reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration, capsules or tablets containing doxycycline hyclate and capsules containing doxycycline monohydrate should be administered with adequate amounts of fluid and probably should not be given at bedtime or to patients with esophageal obstruction or compression. It has been suggested that […]

Tetracyclines General Statement: Uses

Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Because of the development of resistance, tetracyclines are rarely used for the treatment of infections caused by common gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria unless other appropriate anti-infectives are contraindicated or are ineffective and in vitro susceptibility tests indicate that the causative organisms are susceptible to the drugs. Generally, given a susceptible organism, the currently available tetracyclines are all equally effective when administered in appropriate dosages. Because minocycline and, to a lesser extent, doxycycline penetrate most body tissues and fluids better than do other currently available tetracyclines, some clinicians […]

Order Ilosone (Erythromycin) No Prescription 250\500mg

Erythromycin Erythromycins are macrolide antibiotics that are active principally against gram-positive cocci and bacilli and to a lesser extent gram-negative cocci and bacilli; the drugs also exhibit activity against chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma, spirochetes, and mycobacteria. Uses Prior to initiation of erythromycin therapy, appropriate specimens should be obtained for identification of the causative organism and in vitro susceptibility tests. Use of erythromycin does not preclude the necessity for surgical procedures (such as incision and drainage) as needed. There does not appear to be a difference in clinical efficacy among the erythromycin derivatives when each is administered in appropriate doses. However, some clinicians believe that the risk of hepatotoxicity from the estolate derivative […]

Chlamydial sexually transmitted diseases

Description of Medical Condition An obligate intracellular membrane-bound prokaryotic organism, chlamydia trachomatis causes an estimated 3 million new sexually transmitted infections in the US each year. The estimated cost of chlamydia STDs in 1994 was $2 billion per year in the U.S., largely due to costly complications such as PID, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. Studies indicate that 75-90% of women and 50-90% of men with chlamydial STD are asymptomatic. Persons with asymptomatic infection can remain infectious for years. Currently many more women than men are screened, leaving a large male reservoir of infection. System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: Unknown Incidence/Prevalence in USA: 3-5% general medical population, 5-15% of teens and young adults, […]

Order Erythromycin (Ilosone) Without Prescription 250/500mg

Erythromycin [Ilosone 250mg, 500mg] Drug Nomenclature International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish): Synonyms: Eritromicin; Eritromicina; Eritromicinas; Erythromycin; Erythromycinum; Erytromycin; Erytromysiini BAN: Erythromycin INN: Erythromycin [rINN (en)] INN: Eritromicina [rINN (es)] INN: Érythromycine [rINN (fr)] INN: Erythromycinum [rINN (la)] INN: Еритромицин [rINN (ru)] Chemical name: Erythromycin A is (2R,3S,4S,5R,6R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13R)-5-(3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-N,N-dimethyl-β-d-xylo-hexopyranosyloxy)-3-(2,6-dideoxy-3-C,3-O-dimethyl-αl-ribo-hexopyranosyloxy)-13-ethyl-6,11,12-trihydroxy-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexamethyl-9-oxotridecan-13-olide Molecular formula: C37H67NO13 =733.9 CAS: 114-07-8 ATC code: D10AF02; J01FA01; S01AA17 Read code: y00zu [Skin]; y02P4; y0Cdx [2] Pharmacopoeias in China, Europe, International, Japan, and US European Pharmacopoeia, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1 and 6.2 (Erythromycin). It is produced by the growth of a strain of Streptomyces erythreus and is a mixture of macrolide antibiotics consisting […]