Tags: Pneumonia

Intestinal Nematode Infections

ContentsASCARIASISClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionENTEROBIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionANCYLOSTOMIASIS & NECATORIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisSTRONGYLOIDIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisTRICHURIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrognosisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCASCARIASIS Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are infested with Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis or roundworm. More than 4 million people are estimated to be infected in the United States. Infection occurs predominately in the southeastern states and more commonly in younger children, and it is associated with lower socioeconomic status. The organism is acquired through ingestion of embryonic forms of the worm, which are found in fecally contaminated soil. After ingestion, the embryonic eggs hatch in …

Continue Reading...

Nonfalciparum Malaria (P Vivax, P Ovale, P Malariae)

ContentsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Patients with nonfalciparum malaria invariably develop fever and chills that may become cyclic. Initially, patients experience chills, which are followed by fever (Box 1). Patients with malaria often manifest many nonspecific symptoms such as weakness, malaise, headache, and myalgias. As the disease progresses, signs of anemia, such as pale conjunctiva, may be seen. Splenomegaly and mild hepatomegaly may also be present. After hours of fever, defervescence occurs with marked diaphoresis. Patients are weakened and exhausted from the severity of the disease. In established infections caused by P vivax and …

Continue Reading...

Pneumocystis Carinii

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESP CARINII PNEUMONIAClinical FindingsExtrapulmonary P Carinii InfectionsBOX 1. Signs and Symptoms of Pneumocystis carinii PneumoniaBOX 2. Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in AdultsBOX 3. Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia in ChildrenBOX 4. Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii PneumoniaBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Pneumocystis carinii, when examined using molecular techniques, most closely resembles a fungus. • Stains of either bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) or transbronchial-biopsy samples yield a diagnosis in > 90% of patients and should be considered the gold standard in diagnosis. • BAL with transbronchial biopsy increases diagnostic yield to ~ 100%. • P carinii has not yet …

Continue Reading...

Extrapulmonary P Carinii Infections

ContentsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCExtrapulmonary P carinii infections occur in < 3% of patients and must be diagnosed with histopathologic samples. Primary prophylaxis for PCP with pentamidine may confer a higher risk for extrapulmonary infection. Symptoms of extrapulmonary involvement are nonspecific, usually consisting of fevers, chills, and sweats. Although any area of the body may be involved, splenomegaly with cysts and thyroiditis are most common. Diagnosis The practice of diagnosing PCP morphologically by traditional staining methods (silver methenamine and toluidine blue) of induced sputum samples in HIV-infected individuals has fallen out of favor. Although relatively simple and inexpensive, staining of sputum …

Continue Reading...

Aspergillus, Pseudallescheria, & Agents of Mucormycosis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESInvasive Pulmonary AspergillosisAspergilloma DISSEMINATED ASPERGILLOSISClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatment, Prevention, & Control ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSISClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisFarmer’s LungAspergillus SinusitisPseudallescheria Boydii InfectionMUCORMYCOSISEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsMucormycosis: Clinical SyndromesTable 1. Diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.Table 2. Clinical aspects of Aspergillus sinusitis.BOX 1. Aspergillus InfectionBOX 2. Treatment of Aspergillus Infection in Children and AdultsBOX 3. Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Invasive Aspergillus spp. in Immunosuppressed PatientsBOX 4. Treatment of PseudallescheriosisBOX 5. Treatment of Mucormycosis in Children and AdultsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCASPERGILLUS INFECTION Essentials of Diagnosis • Filamentous fungus with septate hyphae 3-6 um in diameter. • Branching of hyphal elements typically at 45° angle. • Specific IgG …

Continue Reading...

Pseudallescheria Boydii Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Filamentous fungus that is morphologically similar to Aspergillus spp. • Most serious infections occur in immunosuppressed patients. • Recovery from culture must be distinguished from colonization or contamination. General Considerations P boydii is a mold that is capable of causing infection in immunosuppressed patients and less frequently in immunocompetent patients. Overall, infection with P boydii is rare. A. Epidemiology. Although a relatively common environmental mold, P boydii is a rare cause of human disease. It can be easily recovered from soil, water, and manure. Both community and nosocomial acquisition have been …

Continue Reading...

Cryptococcus Neoformans

Essentials of Diagnosis • Routine laboratory tests often normal. • One-third of patients are afebrile. • Definitive diagnosis made by fungal culture maintained at 37°C for 6 weeks. • Cryptococcal antigen 95% sensitive in CNS infection in centrifuged CSF. • India ink examination positive in only 50% of meningoencephalitis cases. • CSF lymphocytes often low in CNS infection, especially in AIDS patients. • Cryptococcal antigen most sensitive detection method in serum. …

Continue Reading...

Candida Species

Contents Essentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESCandida DermatitisOral CandidiasisEsophageal CandidiasisCandida VulvovaginitisCandiduria, Candida Cystitis & Urinary Tract CandidiasisCandidemia & Disseminated CandidiasisCANDIDA ENDOCARDITISDiagnosisTreatmentGI CANDIDIASIS (NONESOPHAGEAL)DiagnosisTreatmentOTHER CANDIDA SYNDROMESDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & Control of Candida InfectionsBOX 1. Dermatologic and Mucosal CandidiasisBOX 2. Deep-Tissue Candida Infection BOX 3. Treatment of Oral CandidiasisBOX 4. Treatment of Candida EsophagitisBOX 5. Treatment of Candida Vulvovaginitis1BOX 6. Treatment of Urinary Tract CandidiasisBOX 7. Treatment of Candidemia and Disseminated Candidiasis1BOX 8. Treatment of Candida EndocarditisBOX 9. Treatment of Non-esophageal GI Candidiasis BOX 10. Prevention & Control of CandidiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC Essentials of Diagnosis • Characteristic appearance of yeast and hyphae on KOH preparations. • Formation of germ tubes …

Continue Reading...

Coccidioides

Essentials of Diagnosis • Predisposing factors include travel to the dry desert climates found in the southwestern United States and exposure to dust. • The commonest source of infection is dust inhalation in the southwestern United States. • The commonest infection is pneumonia. • Key laboratory findings include growth of the fungus and complement fixing (CF) antigen detection by immunodiffusion. General Considerations Coccidioidomycosis was first described as a disease a …

Continue Reading...

Blastomyces Dermatitidis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Round thick-walled yeast with broad-based budding. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Associated with activities in proximity to waterways. • Associated with exposure to dust, eg excavation. • Endemic in states surrounding the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. • Pyogranulomas on histopathological examination. • Acute or chronic infection of lung, skin, bone, or genitourinary tract. • …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE