Tags: Plague

Brucella, Francisella, Pasteurella, Yersinia, & Hacek

BRUCELLOSIS Essentials of Diagnosis • Suspected in patients with chronic fever of unknown etiology who have a history of occupational exposure or come from a high prevalence area. • Leukopenia. • Blood culture or bone marrow cultures on appropriate media. • Serum antibody titer = 1:160. • Polymerase chain reaction. General Considerations Brucellosis (also called undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever) is an infection that causes abortion in domestic animals. It is caused by one of six species of Brucella coccobacilli. It may occasionally be transmitted to humans, in whom the disease could be acute or chronic with ongoing fever and constitutional symptoms without localized findings. A. Epidemiology. Brucellosis is transmitted …

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Yersiniosis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Suspected in a child living in or traveling from a high-prevalence area who has fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea followed by a reactive polyarthritis. • Yersinia spp. are recovered from cultures of specimens of stool, mesenteric lymph nodes, blood, or abscess material. • Inoculation of duplicate sets of cultures for incubation at 37 and 25 °C, respectively, enhances recovery of the microorganisms. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Conditions that are associated with increased risk for Yersinia spp. infections (yersiniosis) include iron overload states (such as in patients who receive chronic blood transfusions or those with hemochromatosis) and the use of desferrioxamine, a bacterial siderophore. Infections caused by Y …

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Plague

Essentials of Diagnosis • Suspected in patients living in or traveling from an endemic area who have acute onset of fever, prostration, and tender adenopathy. • Yersinia pestis may be recovered from blood cultures or cultures of an aspirate from buboes or sputum in the pneumonic form in 80%-100% of cases. • Gram stains of bubo aspirate or sputum demonstrate the characteristic bipolar “safety pin” gram-negative microorganisms. • Y pestis grows aerobically on most culture media after 48-72 h of incubation. General Considerations The genus Yersinia, named after Alexander Yersin (1863-1943), includes Y pestis, Y enterocolitica, and Y pseudotuberculosis. Y pestis is the cause of plague, a disease that has left …

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Tularemia

Essentials of Diagnosis • Suspected in patients with fever, lymphadenopathy, and skin lesions who have a history of animal exposure (including to wild animals, ticks, or deerflies) or are coming from a high prevalence area or in laboratory personnel who work with Francisella spp. • Blood culture or other biologic specimen cultures on appropriate culture media. • Serum antibody titer = 1:160 or a fourfold increase or decrease in titer. General Considerations Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia (also called rabbit fever or deerfly fever), an infectious disease that occurs primarily in animals. It may occasionally cause human disease, which most often manifests itself by one or more skin …

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Order Tetracycline (Sumycin) No Prescription 250\500mg

Tetracycline: Side Effects See also Individual agents The tetracyclines are a closely related group of antibiotics with comparable pharmacological properties but different pharmacokinetic characteristics. They have both the advantages and disadvantages of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Tetracyclines are effective not only against bacteria and spirochetes, but also against some forms of Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Rickettsia, as well as protozoa. They affect multiplying microorganisms by inhibiting ribosomal protein synthesis. Their effect is therefore primarily bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, depending on the kind of microorganism. Most of the adverse effects of the tetracyclines depend on the concentration of the antibiotic in the affected organ. The more lipophilic drugs are more potent with regard to their …

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Bartonella Infections

Description of Medical Condition Bartonella infections cause manifestations in two broad categories: • Localized skin lesions and prominent regional lymphadenitis, i.e., typical cat scratch disease (CSD). Atypical CSD manifestations often represent disseminated infection. • Primary bacteremia, potential for persistent disseminated infection with localized inflammatory (and neovascular) lesions in a variety of organ systems and/or ongoing bacteremia. System(s) affected: Nervous, Cardiovascular, Musculoskeletal, Pulmonary, Gastrointestinal, Skin/ Exocrine, Hemic/Lymphatic/lmmunologic Genetics: No defined genetic predisposition Incidence/Prevalence in USA: • Non-B. bacilliformis infections: – CSD: estimated 9.3/100,000 people (approximately 25,000 cases annually) • Others, no incidence estimates Predominant age: • B. henselae infections: – CSD: 55% in persons < 18 years old – BA/BP, bacteremia, endocarditis, …

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Cardiovascular Infections

Infective Endocarditis Potential Severity Acute endocarditis is life-threatening and often requires surgical intervention.Subacute endocarditis is an indolent disease that can continue for months. Epidemiology Infective endocarditis remains a serious but relatively uncommon problem. The incidence varies from series to series, being estimated to be as high as 11 per 100,000 population, and as low as 0.6 per 100,000 population. The exact incidence is difficult to ascertain, because the definitions for endocarditis differ in many surveys. A reasonable estimate is probably 2 per 100,000 population. This means that a primary care physician will encounter only 1 to 2 cases over a working lifetime. Endocarditis is more common in men than in women, …

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Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Antibiotics Before prescribing a specific antibiotic, clinicians should be able to answer these questions: •  How does the antibiotic kill or inhibit bacterial growth? •  What are the antibiotic’s toxicities and how should they be monitored? •  How is the drug metabolized, and what are the dosing recommendations? Does the dosing schedule need to be modified in patients with renal dysfunction? •  What are the indications for using each specific antibiotic? •  How broad is the antibiotic’s antimicrobial spectrum? •  How much does the antibiotic cost? Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in …

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Evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines

Adequate response to immunization is most frequently judged by measuring the development of specific serum immunoglobulins (e.g., antibodies) following a course of administration of vaccine. The concentration of specific immunoglobulin in plasma is usually proportional to the degree of protection from the viral agent. However, the relation between immunologic response to a vaccine and protection afforded by it to subsequent disease must be documented in field trials. The longevity of the protective response must always be determined to establish the most appropriate interval for revaccination. Eradication Although the widespread use of antibiotics has had little success in curtailing the prevalence of bacterial infection, and in certain instances has resulted in the …

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Buy Vibramycin (Doxycycline) Without Prescription 100mg

Doxycycline Calcium, Doxycycline Hyclate, Doxycycline Monohydrate: Dosage and Administration • Reconstitution and Administration Doxycycline calcium, doxycycline hyclate, and doxycycline monohydrate are administered orally. When oral therapy is not feasible, doxycycline hyclate may be administered by slow IV infusion; however, oral therapy should replace IV therapy as soon as possible. If doxycycline is given IV, the risk of thrombophlebitis should be considered. • Oral Administration To reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration, capsules or tablets containing doxycycline hyclate and capsules containing doxycycline monohydrate should be administered with adequate amounts of fluid and probably should not be given at bedtime or to patients with esophageal obstruction or compression. It has been …

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