Tags: Peptic ulcer disease

Cestodes

Human infections caused by cestodes, or tapeworms, may occur within the lumen of the bowel, where adult cestodes attach themselves to the host intestine (Box 1). Alternatively, human infection may be the result of dissemination of cestodes from the bowel to involve extraintestinal sites, often by larval forms of the parasite. The life cycle of cestodes is determined by definitive hosts, in whom the mature adult worm lives, and intermediate hosts, which harbor the larval forms of the parasite. Humans are a definitive host for six cestodes: Diphyllobothrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana, and Dipylidium caninum. In addition, humans may be intermediate hosts for Echinococcus granulosis and …

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Dipylidium Caninum Infection

Essentials of Diagnosis • Motile proglottids 23 by 8 mm. • Proglottids have genital pores at either end and contain egg clusters. • Eggs occur in compartmented clusters (diagnostic). • Scolex has 4-7 rows of hooklets and 4 suckers. General Considerations D caninum is distributed worldwide and is associated with wild and domesticated cats and dogs. The life cycle is similar to that of H diminuta, with an obligatory arthropod intermediate host. The adult worm lives in dogs, cats, or humans, and gravid proglottids are released from the adult worm either singly or in short chains. Eggs are passed in the stool, and ingestion of eggs by the intermediate host results …

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Intestinal Nematode Infections

ASCARIASIS Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are infested with Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis or roundworm. More than 4 million people are estimated to be infected in the United States. Infection occurs predominately in the southeastern states and more commonly in younger children, and it is associated with lower socioeconomic status. The organism is acquired through ingestion of embryonic forms of the worm, which are found in fecally contaminated soil. After ingestion, the embryonic eggs hatch in the small intestine, and the larvae undergo a tissue migration phase. During the migration, the larvae penetrate the intestinal wall and travel intravenously to the pulmonary alveoli. In the lungs, the …

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Helicobacter Pylori

Essentials of Diagnosis • Positive serum immunoglobulin G usually indicates active infection. • Serology is generally not helpful for documentation of cure. • Urea breath test and stool antigen test are useful to document cure. • Acid suppression therapy decreases the sensitivity of the urea breath test. • Culture and susceptibility testing may be useful in refractory cases. General Considerations Pathologists have noted spiral bacteria in biopsies and autopsy specimens of gastric mucosa for over 100 years. Their significance was alternately debated and ignored until 1982, when Barry Marshall and Robin Warren cultivated the organism for the first time and suggested that it might be a cause of chronic gastritis and …

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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease & Emphysema

Description of Medical Condition Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) encompasses several diffuse pulmonary diseases including chronic bronchitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and emphysema. The term usually refers to a mixture of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. COPD is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. • Chronic bronchitis is defined clinically by increased mucus production and recurrent cough present on most days for at least three months during at least two consecutive years. • Emphysema is the destruction of interalveolar septa. The disease occurs in the distal or terminal airways and involves both airways and lung parenchyma. System(s) affected: Pulmonary Genetics: • Chronic bronchitis is not a genetic disorder although …

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Bell Palsy

Description of Medical Condition Paralysis or weakness of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve, typically unilaterally, due to inflammation and swelling of the facial nerve within the facial canal • Bell palsy: Idiopathic • Ramsay Hunt syndrome: Bell palsy associated with vesicles within the outer ear canal or behind the ear. due to herpes zoster infection • Facial diplegia: The simultaneous development of bilateral Bell palsy is highly unusual and conditions such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and chronic meningitis should be considered as possible explanations. System(s) affected: Nervous Genetics: There is a familial tendency toward Bell palsy Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Incidence 16 in 100,000 Predominant age: Affects all ages. Most common …

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Intestinal Helminths

Potential Severity Infections are often asymptomatic. In the immuno-compromised host, Strongyloides can progress to a fatal hyperinfection syndrome. Helminths include the roundworms (nematodes), flukes (trematodes), and tapeworms (cestodes). These parasites are large, ranging in size from 1 cm to 10 m, and they often live in the human gastrointestinal tract without causing symptoms. Only when the infection is very heavy or the worm migrates to an extraintesti-nal site do patients seek medical attention. Transmission to humans results in most cases from contact with human waste. The diagnosis is generally made by examining the stool for eggs, larvae, or adult worms. Intestinal Nematodes (Roundworms) Nematodes can be classified into two groups. Those …

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Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Antibiotics Before prescribing a specific antibiotic, clinicians should be able to answer these questions: •  How does the antibiotic kill or inhibit bacterial growth? •  What are the antibiotic’s toxicities and how should they be monitored? •  How is the drug metabolized, and what are the dosing recommendations? Does the dosing schedule need to be modified in patients with renal dysfunction? •  What are the indications for using each specific antibiotic? •  How broad is the antibiotic’s antimicrobial spectrum? •  How much does the antibiotic cost? Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in …

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Tetracyclines General Statement: Uses

Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Because of the development of resistance, tetracyclines are rarely used for the treatment of infections caused by common gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria unless other appropriate anti-infectives are contraindicated or are ineffective and in vitro susceptibility tests indicate that the causative organisms are susceptible to the drugs. Generally, given a susceptible organism, the currently available tetracyclines are all equally effective when administered in appropriate dosages. Because minocycline and, to a lesser extent, doxycycline penetrate most body tissues and fluids better than do other currently available tetracyclines, some clinicians …

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Purchase Amoxicillin (Amoxil) No Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin 250, 500, 875mg Tablets Aminopenicillins General Statement •Amoxicillin is an aminopenicillin antibiotic that is structurally related to ampicillin. Uses Amoxicillin shares the uses of other aminopenicillins and is used principally for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella). Amoxicillin also is used for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae, enterococci, nonpenicillinase-producing staphylococci,Listeria); however, like other aminopenicillins, amoxicillin generally should not be used for the treatment of streptococcal or staphylococcal infections when a natural penicillin would be effective. • Otitis Media Amoxicillin is used for the treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) caused …

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