Tags: Pancreatitis

Giardia: Clinical Syndromes

After ingestion of G lamblia cysts, 5-15% of patients will have asymptomatic cyst passage, and 25-50% of patients will have diarrhea. From 35% to 70% of these patients will have no evidence of infection. The three manifestations of infection include asymptomatic cyst passage, self-limited diarrhea, and chronic diarrhea with associated malabsorption and weight loss. Factors related to each of these manifestations are unknown but are believed to be related to specific host factors, parasite load, and virulence variation among G lamblia isolates. ACUTE GIARDIASIS Clinical Findings Signs and Symptoms After ingestion of cysts, an incubation period of 3-20 days exists before symptom onset. At the time of presentation, patients have generally […]

Cryptosporidium: Clinical Syndromes

Enteric cryptosporidiosis is the most common clinical presentation in patient populations. In addition, immunocompromised patients may present with cholecystitis or respiratory infections attributed to C parvum (Box 1). Asymptomatic infection has also been reported. ENTERIC CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS Clinical Findings Signs and Symptoms An average of 5-7 days passes from oocyst ingestion to symptom onset. Symptoms are similar in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients but are prolonged and considerably more severe in compromised patients. Patients complain of watery diarrhea in variable quantities of = 25 L/day leading to significant dehydration. Abdominal cramps, malaise, low-grade fever, and anorexia are frequently reported. Nausea, vomiting, myalgia, headache, and weight loss may also occur. Symptoms are usually […]

Extrapulmonary P Carinii Infections

Extrapulmonary P carinii infections occur in < 3% of patients and must be diagnosed with histopathologic samples. Primary prophylaxis for PCP with pentamidine may confer a higher risk for extrapulmonary infection. Symptoms of extrapulmonary involvement are nonspecific, usually consisting of fevers, chills, and sweats. Although any area of the body may be involved, splenomegaly with cysts and thyroiditis are most common. Diagnosis The practice of diagnosing PCP morphologically by traditional staining methods (silver methenamine and toluidine blue) of induced sputum samples in HIV-infected individuals has fallen out of favor. Although relatively simple and inexpensive, staining of sputum samples induced by hypertonic saline inhalation is clearly dependent on operator and laboratory experience, […]


Essentials of Diagnosis Key signs and symptoms may include minimally productive cough, low-grade fever, headache, and altered mental status. Risk factors include smoking, advanced age, history of cardiac or pulmonary disease, male gender, and cell-mediated immune suppression. Common infections include pneumonia with multisystem involvement (Legionnaires' disease) and nonspecific febrile illness without pulmonary involvement (Pontiac fever). Gram stain of respiratory secretions may reveal numerous neutrophils without evident organisms. Aerobic, pleomorphic, faintly staining gram-negative rods are non-spore forming and unencapsulated. General Considerations Epidemiology More than 25 species and 48 serogroups of Legionella have been identified. Legionella pneumophila (especially serogroup 1) causes ~ 70-80% of cases of legionellosis, but L micdadei, L bozemanii, L […]

Legionella: Clinical Syndromes

Legionella species are associated with outbreaks of either Pontiac fever, a self-limited influenzalike condition in otherwise healthy people, or Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonic disease more common among elderly and immunocompromised individuals (Box 1). The spectrum of illness is much broader than these two clinical entities suggest, ranging from completely asymptomatic infection to fulminant respiratory failure and death. PONTIAC FEVER In 1968, the first documented outbreak of Pontiac fever syndrome affected people in a health department building in Pontiac, Michigan. Epidemiologic investigation demonstrated that the infection was airborne and implicated water aerosols that were produced by a faulty air conditioning system as the source of exposure. Sentinel guinea pigs exposed to […]


Essentials of Diagnosis Epidemic parotitis, usually seen in childhood. Most common heralding symptom is painful parotid swelling. Headache and meningismus common. Orchitis is uncommon late complication seen in post-pubertal males; rarely leads to sterility. Other glandular tissue may be inflamed. General Considerations Epidemiology Mumps, historically known as epidemic parotitis, was one of the most common early childhood infections before the routine use of mumps vaccination starting in 1968. Reported cases of mumps have dropped 98% when compared with the prevaccine era. It is spread primarily during the late winter and early spring. Before the vaccination era, mumps epidemics occurred in 3- to 4-year cycles. Microbiology Mumps virus is a 150-nm paramyxovirus. […]

Ciprofloxacin 250mg, 500mg, 750mg Tablets [Cipro, Ciproxin]

Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin Information For The User Ciprofloxacin 250mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 500mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 750mg Film-Coated Tablets What Are Ciprofloxacin Tablets And What Are They Used For? Ciprofloxacin belongs to a group of medicines known as the quinolone antibacterials, fluoroquinolones. It has high anti-bacterial activity against a wide range of organisms. Ciprofloxacin works by killing bacteria that cause infections, it only works with specific strains of bacteria. Adults: Ciprofloxacin is used to treat the following bacterial infections: respiratory tract infections(Eg. certain types of pneumonia) long lasting or recurring ear or sinus infections urinary tract infections (bladder and kidneys infection) infections of the testicles genital organ infections in women(e.g. gonorrhoea, […]

Penicillins: Organs and Systems

Respiratory Bronchospasm may be a consequence of penicillin allergy. Acute severe dyspnea with cyanosis has also been observed without symptoms of bronchial obstruction or pulmonary edema. Specific mechanisms for such cases have yet to be identified. Allergic pneumonitis and transient eosinophilic pulmonary infiltrate (Loeffler's syndrome) are rare. These syndromes have also been observed with penicillin hypersensitivity. In one case, an alveolar allergic reaction, probably due to ampicillin, showed features of an adult respiratory distress syndrome. Nervous system High doses of penicillins, in the order of several million units/day of penicillin G, can produce myoclonic jerks, hyper-reflexia, seizures, or coma. Drowsiness and hallucinations can occur occasionally. Such reactions are due to a […]

Order Cheap generic Tetracycline (Sumycin) No Prescription 250 – 500mg

Tetracycline: Organs and Systems Cardiovascular Cardiovascular reactions to tetracyclines have often been associated with other symptoms of hypersensitivity, such as urticaria, angioedema, bronchial obstruction, and arterial hypotension. Such reactions occurred in patients who had tolerated tetracyclines previously and were therefore considered as anaphylactic. Respiratory There have been a few cases of acute bronchial obstruction after the administration of a tetracycline. Pneumonitis with eosinophilia has also been described. When pleural tetracycline instillation is used to produce local inflammation for pleurodesis in spontaneous pneumothorax, there are no severe short-term or long-term adverse effects. Nervous system Tetracyclines rarely cause benign intracranial hypertension. This syndrome has primarily involved children, although it has also been observed […]

Norfloxacin: Side Effects

See also Fluoroquinolones Norfloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug with properties similar to those of ciprofloxacin, although less potent in vitro. Norfloxacin inhibits CYP1A2 and can therefore enhance the effects of other drugs by reducing their clearance. Comparative studies In a double-blind, multicenter study 171 patients who had acute pyelonephritis were given intravenous cefuroxime for 2-3 days, followed by ceftibuten 200 mg bd or norfloxacin 400 mg bd for 10 days. There were fewer bacterial relapses after oral norfloxacin than ceftibuten. Adverse events were reported by 47% of the patients taking ceftibuten and by 38% of those taking norfloxacin. This difference was not significant, but diarrhea or loose stools occurred more […]