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Candida Species

Essentials of Diagnosis Characteristic appearance of yeast and hyphae on KOH preparations. Formation of germ tubes in serum is presumptive diagnosis for Candida albicans. Cultures must be interpreted with caution because positive culture may represent colonization rather than infection. Serology not useful. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Candida organisms are commensal with humans and, in the absence of alterations in host defense mechanisms, usually do not cause disease. Candida exists as normal flora within the oral cavity, throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in expectorated sputum, in the vagina, and in the bladder of patients with indwelling catheters. There are >150 species within the genus Candida, although the majority are not known to …

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Candida Vulvovaginitis

Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Risk factors for Candida infection of the vagina include pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and antimicrobial therapy, although the majority of infections occur in the absence of these risks. Typical complaints are vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge (Box 1), although a wide range of symptoms exists. Pruritus, the most common complaint, is often intense, and the discharge, classically described as cottage cheese-like, may range from a thin, white, scant discharge to homogeneously thick. Odor, if present, is mild. Other symptoms may include vulvar burning, external dysuria, vaginal irritation and soreness, and dyspareunia. Symptoms may peak the week prior to menses and wane …

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Oral Candidiasis (Oral thrush)

Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Candida infections of the oral cavity are relatively common and may present in several forms. Any of the forms may be asymptomatic or may cause soreness and burning. The most common, acute pseudomembranous candidiasis, or oral thrush, presents with multiple white patches on the tongue, palate, and other areas of oral mucosa. These lesions may be easily removed by scraping with a tongue blade to reveal an erythematous, irritated mucosa (Box 1). In addition to oral thrush, oral Candida infection occurs in several distinct forms. Acute atrophic candidiasis causes erythematous mucosa found typically on the palate and tongue, chronic atrophic candidiasis results in erythema and …

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Candida Dermatitis (Candida rash)

Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Skin infections with Candida are common and may manifest in a variety of forms. Intertrigo occurs in warm, moist areas of skin, such as under the breast, in the groin, and in the axilla. Initially pustular or vesicular, lesions eventually become confluent to form an erythematous, macerated area of skin with a scalloped border and satellite lesions (Box 1). Erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica is similar to intertrigo but involves the areas between the fingers and toes. Paronychia is infection of the nail bed, seen more commonly in diabetics and people who frequently immerse their hands in water. Candida spp. may cause onychomycosis, particularly in HIV-infected patients. …

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Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen. Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be responsible for epidemics in the Napoleonic and Persian armies in the early 1800s. The pathogen was first described in 1886 by Weichselbaum, who observed gram-negative diplococci in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a young …

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Buy Without Prescription Sporanox (Itraconazole) 100mg

Itraconazole: Side Effects See also Antifungal azoles Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal drug. It is used orally to treat oropharyngeal and vulvovaginal candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytoses unresponsive to topical treatment, and systemic infections, including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, cocci-dioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracocci-dioidomycosis, and sporotrichosis. It is also used to prevent fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Pharmacokinetics The systemic availability of itraconazole and the bioequi-valence of single 200 mg doses of itraconazole solution and two capsule formulations have been evaluated in a crossover study in 30 male volunteers. Itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole were 30-37% more available from the solution and were greater than from either capsule formulation. However, the values of Cmax, fmax, and …

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Diflucan (Fluconazole) Buy No Prescription 50/100/150/200mg

Fluconazole: Susceptibility Factors Age In a group of children with fever, neutropenia, and neoplastic disease, there was an increase in renal fluconazole clearance. In infants and children, the volume of distribution of fluconazole is significantly higher and falls with age. With the exception of infants, who have a slower clearance rate, children clear the compound more rapidly. However, a second larger study reported slower elimination in children under 1 year of age, requiring dosage adjustments. Low birth-weight neonates have a particularly low clearance rate, which increases within weeks. The use of fluconazole in 726 children under 1 year of age, reported in 78 publications, has been reviewed. They received a wide …

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Order Zithromax Online No Prescription 250/500mg

Azithromycin: Organs and Systems Cardiovascular Torsade de pointes and cardiorespiratory arrest have been reported in a patient with congenital long QT syndrome who took azithromycin. In a prospective study of 47 previously healthy people, there was a modest statistically insignificant prolongation of the QTC interval without clinical consequences after the end of a course of azithromycin 3 g/day for 5 days. Sensory systems Ears Azithromycin can cause ototoxicity. In one study, 8 (17%) of 46 HIV-positive patients had probable (n = 6) or possible (n = 2) ototoxicity with azithromycin. The effects were hearing loss (88%), tinnitus (37%), plugged ears (37%), and vertigo (25%), developing at a mean of 7.6 weeks …

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Candidiasis Mucocutaneous

Description of Medical Condition A mucocutaneous disorder caused by infection with various species of Candida. Candida is normally present, in very small amounts, in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. • Candida vulvovaginitis — infection on the vaginal mucosa, often associated with cutaneous vulvar involvement • Orophatyngeal candidiasis — infection of the oral cavity (“thrush”) and/or pharynx. • Candida esophagitis — usually associated with an immunosuppressed host • Gastrointestinal candidiasis — gastritis, sometimes with ulcers, usually associated with thrush. The small and large bowel can also be affected. • Angular cheilitis — fissures formed by Candida infection at the corners of the mouth. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Gastrointestinal Genetics: …

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HIV / AIDS

Definition Table Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection in Adults and AIDS Surveillance Case Definition and Table Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection in Children Younger than 13 Years present the revised classification systems for adult and child HIV infection. Pathogenesis Transmission of HIV Infection with HIV occurs through three primary modes: sexual, parenteral, and perinatal. Sexual intercourse, primarily receptive anal and vaginal intercourse, is the most common vehicle for transmission. The probability of HIV transmission from receptive anorectal intercourse is 0.1% to 3% per sexual contact and 0.1% to 0.2% per sexual contact for receptive vaginal …

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