Tags: Neomycin

Pathogenic Amebas

ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA & ENTAMOEBA DISPAR Essentials of Diagnosis Patient living in or having traveled to endemic area increases risk. Frequent loose stools with blood and mucus. Demonstration of cyst or trophozoite on stool wet mount or in biopsy specimen. Serology positive within 7-10 days of infection, may remain positive for years after infection resolved. Monoclonal antibodies and polymerase chain reaction emerging; may help differentiate E histolytica and E dispar. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. There are numerous distinct species of ameba within the genus Entamoeba, and the majority of these do not cause disease in humans. E histolytica is a pathogenic species that is capable of causing disease, such as colitis or …

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Rubella

General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The epidemiology of rubella, commonly referred to as German measles or 3-day measles, has changed dramatically in the past 30 years, owing exclusively to the widespread use of the rubella live attenuated virus vaccine. Before the use of this vaccination (1969), the virus had an epidemic cycle of 6-9 years. It is primarily a winter and early spring infection. The incidence of rubella infection in developed countries has declined by 99%, compared with pre-vaccine era data. In the vaccine era, current data suggest that 10% of young adults are still susceptible. The majority of these young adults lack vaccination. A major concern of rubella is infection of …

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Mumps

Essentials of Diagnosis • Epidemic parotitis, usually seen in childhood. • Most common heralding symptom is painful parotid swelling. • Headache and meningismus common. • Orchitis is uncommon late complication seen in post-pubertal males; rarely leads to sterility. • Other glandular tissue may be inflamed. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Mumps, historically known as epidemic parotitis, was one of the most common early childhood infections before the routine use of mumps vaccination starting in 1968. Reported cases of mumps have dropped 98% when compared with the prevaccine era. It is spread primarily during the late winter and early spring. Before the vaccination era, mumps epidemics occurred in 3- to 4-year cycles. B. …

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Measles

Essentials of Diagnosis • Epidemic systemic viral illness, primarily of children and young adults. • Exanthematous disease with fever, cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis. • Exanthem is a maculopapular, confluent rash that is centrifugally spread from the head to the extremities. • Koplik’s spots are a pathognomonic enanthem that occurs on the buccal mucosa. • Incidence has drastically dropped in the postvaccination era. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Rubeola, commonly known as measles, is a virus spread primarily in the winter and early spring. Like mumps and rubella, vaccination has drastically changed the epidemiology of measles. In the prevaccination era, rubeola followed a biannual epidemic cycle. It is prevalent throughout the world. Measles …

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Ofloxacin: Side Effects

See also Fluoroquinolones Ofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug similar to ciprofloxacin. Comparative studies The safety and efficacy of topical ofloxacin ear-drops 0.3% (0.25 ml bd) have been compared with that of co-amoxiclav oral suspension (40 mg/kg/day) for acute otitis media in 286 children aged 1-12 years with tympanostomy tubes in place. Topical ofloxacin was as effective as and better tolerated than systemic therapy with co-amoxiclav. Treatment-related adverse event rates were 31% for co-amoxiclav and 6% for ofloxacin. Organs and Systems Nervous system Headache was recorded in 9% taking ofloxacin during short-course treatment of urinary tract infections. Seizures have occurred in patients taking ofloxacin. A Tourette-like syndrome developed in a 71-year-old …

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Blepharitis

Description of Medical Condition An inflammatory reaction of the eyelid margin. It usually occurs as seborrheic (non-ulcerative) or as staphylococcal (ulcerative) blepharitis. Both types may coexist. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Common (the most frequent ocular disease) Predominant age: Adult Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Staphylococcus aureus blepharitis – Itching – Lacrimation; tearing – Burning – Photophobia (light sensitivity) – Usually worse in morning – Recurrent stye (external hordeolum, or internal hordeolum) – Recurrent chalazia (chronic inflammation of meibomian glands) – Fine, epithelial keratitis, lower half of cornea – Ulcerations at base of eyelashes – Broken, sparse, misdirected eyelashes(trichiasis) • Seborrheic …

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Poliovirus vaccines

Two types of trivalent poliovirus vaccines are currently licensed for distribution in the United States: an enhanced inactivated vaccine and a live attenuated, oral vaccine. inactivated vaccine is the recommended vaccine for the primary series and booster dose for children in the United States, whereas oral vaccine is recommended in areas of the world that have circulating poliovirus. inactivated vaccine is given to children aged 2, 4, and 6 to 18 months and 4 to 6 years. Primary poliomyelitis immunization is recommended for all children and young adults up to age 18 years. Allergies to any component of inactivated vaccine, including streptomycin, polymixin B, and neomycin, are contraindications to vaccine use. …

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Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Antibiotics Before prescribing a specific antibiotic, clinicians should be able to answer these questions: •  How does the antibiotic kill or inhibit bacterial growth? •  What are the antibiotic’s toxicities and how should they be monitored? •  How is the drug metabolized, and what are the dosing recommendations? Does the dosing schedule need to be modified in patients with renal dysfunction? •  What are the indications for using each specific antibiotic? •  How broad is the antibiotic’s antimicrobial spectrum? •  How much does the antibiotic cost? Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in …

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Vaccines, Toxoids, and other Immunobiologics

Definitions Immunization is the process of introducing an antigen into the body to induce protection against an infectious agent without causing disease. Vaccines are substances administered to generate a protective immune response. Toxoids are inactivated bacterial toxins. They retain the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin. Adjuvants are inert substances, such as aluminum salts (i.e., alum), which enhance vaccine antigenicity by prolonging antigen absorption. Immune sera are sterile solutions containing antibody derived from human (immune globulin) or equine (antitoxin) sources. Antitoxins contain antibodies that are made by immunizing animals with an antigen and then harvesting the antibodies from serum. Vaccine and toxoid recommendations In general, inactivated vaccines can be administered …

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Surgical Prophylaxis

Definition Antibiotics administered prior to contamination of previously uninfected tissues or fluids are considered prophylactic. The goal for prophylactic antibiotics is to prevent a surgical-site infection from developing. The prevention and management of non-surgical-site infection postoperative infections, such as catheter-related urinary tract infections, occasionally require antibiotics, but prevention of non-surgical-site infection infections is not the goal of surgical prophylaxis. Presumptive antibiotic therapy is administered when an infection is suspected but not yet proven. Therapeutic antibiotics are required for established infection. surgical-site infections are classified as either incisional (such as cellulites of the incision site) or involving an organ or space (such as with meningitis). Incisional surgical-site infections may be superficial (skin …

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