Tags: Meningitis

Cysticercosis (Cysticercus Cellulosea Infection)

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Surgical excision of involved tissue, with microscopic identification of parasite. • Frequently calcified cysts present on x-ray or computed tomography (CT) scans. • Positive serology indicating previous exposure to T solium. • Fine-needle aspiration of cysts (characteristic cytomorphology). General Considerations Cysticercosis is caused by invasion of tissue by the larval forms of T solium, which have been referred to as Cysticercus cellulosea, although the name is not taxonomically correct and introduces confusion. Within a host infected by the adult T solium, eggs or proglottids are passed in the …

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Nematodes

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsIntestinal Nematode InfectionsTissue Nematode InfectionsClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrognosisPreventionClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrevention & PrognosisClinical FindingsTreatmentPreventionBOX 1. Nematodes Pathogenic in Human1BOX 2. Treatment of Selected Intestinal Nematode InfectionsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Intestinal nematodes: demonstration of characteristic eggs or parasites in stool. • Bloodstream nematodes (filariasis): clinical diagnosis can be made; fresh blood smear may be confirmatory. • Tissue nematodes: clinical diagnosis can be made; skin snip or other tissue examination may show organism. General Considerations Nematodes (roundworms) are nonsegmented, tapered, bilaterally symmetrical, cylindrical organisms that have complete digestive tracts and reproduce sexually. Although > 500,000 species of nematodes …

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Intestinal Nematode Infections

ContentsASCARIASISClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionENTEROBIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionANCYLOSTOMIASIS & NECATORIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisSTRONGYLOIDIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisTRICHURIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrognosisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCASCARIASIS Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are infested with Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis or roundworm. More than 4 million people are estimated to be infected in the United States. Infection occurs predominately in the southeastern states and more commonly in younger children, and it is associated with lower socioeconomic status. The organism is acquired through ingestion of embryonic forms of the worm, which are found in fecally contaminated soil. After ingestion, the embryonic eggs hatch in …

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Nonfalciparum Malaria (P Vivax, P Ovale, P Malariae)

ContentsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Patients with nonfalciparum malaria invariably develop fever and chills that may become cyclic. Initially, patients experience chills, which are followed by fever (Box 1). Patients with malaria often manifest many nonspecific symptoms such as weakness, malaise, headache, and myalgias. As the disease progresses, signs of anemia, such as pale conjunctiva, may be seen. Splenomegaly and mild hepatomegaly may also be present. After hours of fever, defervescence occurs with marked diaphoresis. Patients are weakened and exhausted from the severity of the disease. In established infections caused by P vivax and …

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Sporothrix Schenckii

Essentials of Diagnosis • Cigar-shaped yeast. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Associated with activities that involve contact with soil, sphagnum moss, decaying wood, or vegetation. • Gardeners, forestry workers, miners, animal health care providers most at risk. • Raised skin lesions with proximal spread along lymphatic channels. • Recovery of microorganism from culture. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a ubiquitous fungus commonly found in the soil, on sphagnum …

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Cryptococcus Neoformans

Essentials of Diagnosis • Routine laboratory tests often normal. • One-third of patients are afebrile. • Definitive diagnosis made by fungal culture maintained at 37°C for 6 weeks. • Cryptococcal antigen 95% sensitive in CNS infection in centrifuged CSF. • India ink examination positive in only 50% of meningoencephalitis cases. • CSF lymphocytes often low in CNS infection, especially in AIDS patients. • Cryptococcal antigen most sensitive detection method in serum. …

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Candida Species

Contents Essentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESCandida DermatitisOral CandidiasisEsophageal CandidiasisCandida VulvovaginitisCandiduria, Candida Cystitis & Urinary Tract CandidiasisCandidemia & Disseminated CandidiasisCANDIDA ENDOCARDITISDiagnosisTreatmentGI CANDIDIASIS (NONESOPHAGEAL)DiagnosisTreatmentOTHER CANDIDA SYNDROMESDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & Control of Candida InfectionsBOX 1. Dermatologic and Mucosal CandidiasisBOX 2. Deep-Tissue Candida Infection BOX 3. Treatment of Oral CandidiasisBOX 4. Treatment of Candida EsophagitisBOX 5. Treatment of Candida Vulvovaginitis1BOX 6. Treatment of Urinary Tract CandidiasisBOX 7. Treatment of Candidemia and Disseminated Candidiasis1BOX 8. Treatment of Candida EndocarditisBOX 9. Treatment of Non-esophageal GI Candidiasis BOX 10. Prevention & Control of CandidiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC Essentials of Diagnosis • Characteristic appearance of yeast and hyphae on KOH preparations. • Formation of germ tubes …

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Coccidioides

Essentials of Diagnosis • Predisposing factors include travel to the dry desert climates found in the southwestern United States and exposure to dust. • The commonest source of infection is dust inhalation in the southwestern United States. • The commonest infection is pneumonia. • Key laboratory findings include growth of the fungus and complement fixing (CF) antigen detection by immunodiffusion. General Considerations Coccidioidomycosis was first described as a disease a …

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Blastomyces Dermatitidis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Round thick-walled yeast with broad-based budding. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Associated with activities in proximity to waterways. • Associated with exposure to dust, eg excavation. • Endemic in states surrounding the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. • Pyogranulomas on histopathological examination. • Acute or chronic infection of lung, skin, bone, or genitourinary tract. • …

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Histoplasma Capsulatum

 Essentials of Diagnosis • Thin-walled oval yeast measuring 2-4 mm in diameter. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Endemic within Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. • Associated with activities that disturb dust or soil enriched with bird, chicken, and bat excrement. • Complement fixation antibody titer 1:32 or greater. • Simultaneous appearance of anti-H and anti-M antibodies. • Infection most often is asymptomatic or may cause chronic pulmonary infection; less commonly, disseminated …

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