Tags: macrolides

Fever & Bacteremia/Trench Fever/Endocarditis

The four Bartonella species that are pathogenic for humans are capable of causing sustained or relapsing bacteremia accompanied by only fever (Table 1). All except B bacilliformis also cause endocarditis. After B quintana enters the body through broken skin from the excreta of the infected human body louse (Pediculus humanus), there is an incubation period of between 5 and 20 days before the onset of trench fever. Patients complain of fever, myalgias, malaise, headache, bone pain — particularly of the legs, and a transient macular rash. Usually the illness continues for 4-6 weeks. Sustained or recurrent bacteremia is common, with or without symptoms. The form of trench fever described in the …

Continue Reading...

Chlamydia

General Considerations Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes in both sexes. In addition, certain serotypes of C trachomatis are responsible for trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness in humans. C psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia. C pneumoniae infects approximately one-half of the world’s human population and is a cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A. Epidemiology. In the United States, genital infections by C trachomatis serovars D through K occur …

Continue Reading...

C Trachomatis Infections

Essentials of Diagnosis • Typical intracytoplasmic inclusions in Giemsa-stained cell scrapings from the conjunctiva. • Ligase chain reaction (LCR) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in first-void urine. • Positive culture in McCoy or HeLa cells of body fluids or secretions. • Positive microimmunofluorescence serology for suspected cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and infants with pneumonia. • Complement fixation titer of 1:64 or greater in patients with presumed lymphogranuloma venereum. Clinical Syndromes C trachomatis is associated with urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in women and men; epididymitis in men; and mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), acute salpingitis, bartholinitis, and the Fitz-Hugh and Curtis syndrome in women (Box 1). C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see site) …

Continue Reading...

Mycoplasma & Ureaplasma

Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species (mycoplasmas) are ubiquitous in nature and are commonly found in plants, animals, and humans. These bacteria contain the smallest amount of double-stranded DNA that is capable of producing a free-living microorganism; they measure between 0.15 and 0.3 um in diameter and = 2 um in length. They are believed to have evolved from a putative common ancestor of the gram-positive bacteria by a process of genome reduction and adoption of a dependent, parasitic life style. Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp. lack a cell wall. Therefore, they cannot be visualized with the Gram stain and are not susceptible to antibiotics that act on cell wall synthesis (eg, penicillins and …

Continue Reading...

M Pneumoniae Infection & Disease

M pneumoniae is an important cause of upper and lower respiratory infections in both adults and children. Extrapulmonary involvement, including dermatological, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal, and vasculitic involvement, has also been associated with M pneumoniae infection in humans. Essentials of Diagnosis • Community acquired pneumonia. • Extrapulmonary involvement is not infrequent. • Inflammatory cells on sputum Gram stain but no predominant bacterial type. • Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. • Cold agglutinin titer of = 1:32. • Fourfold change in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM titers. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Infected humans are the only source of M pneumoniae organisms for transmission to new susceptible hosts. M pneumoniae is spread from one individual …

Continue Reading...

Legionella

Essentials of Diagnosis • Key signs and symptoms may include minimally productive cough, low-grade fever, headache, and altered mental status. • Risk factors include smoking, advanced age, history of cardiac or pulmonary disease, male gender, and cell-mediated immune suppression. • Common infections include pneumonia with multisystem involvement (Legionnaires’ disease) and nonspecific febrile illness without pulmonary involvement (Pontiac fever). • Gram stain of respiratory secretions may reveal numerous neutrophils without evident organisms. • Aerobic, pleomorphic, faintly staining gram-negative rods are non-spore forming and unencapsulated. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. More than 25 species and 48 serogroups of Legionella have been identified. Legionella pneumophila (especially serogroup 1) causes ~ 70-80% of cases of legionellosis, …

Continue Reading...

Branhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical Syndromes

B catarrhalis causes bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a rare cause of invasive disease, including meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia without a focus, septic arthritis, and cellulitis. In addition, it is a recognized cause of acute conjunctivitis and is periodically mistaken as Neisseria gonorrhoeae in newborn infants with conjunctivitis. B catarrhalis occasionally colonizes the genital mucosa and has been reported as a cause of urethritis. Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. The signs and symptoms of B catarrhalis acute otitis media and sinusitis are indistinguishable from those present when acute otitis media and sinusitis are caused by other pathogens (Box 8). …

Continue Reading...

Clarithromycin 125mg/5ml Oral Suspension

Generic Name: Clarithromycin Information For The User 1. What Clarithromycin 125mg/5ml Oral Suspension Is And What It Is Used For Clarithromycin 125mg/5ml oral suspension contains clarithromycin. Clarithromycin belongs to a group of antibiotics called macrolides. Clarithromycin works by destroying some types of bacteria that cause certain infections. Clarithromycin may be used to treat infections that are caused by bacteria in the chest, throat, sinuses and ear and infections of the skin and the layers of flesh just under the skin. Clarithromycin 125mg/5ml oral Suspension is used in children 6 months to 12 years old. 2. Before You Give Clarithromycin 125mg/5ml Oral Suspension Do not give Clarithromycin 125mg/5ml Oral Suspension to your child: …

Continue Reading...

Buy Without Prescription Levaquin (Levofloxacin) 250/500/750mg

Evoxil (Levofloxacin) 250, 500mg Tablets [US: Levaquin] Generic Name: Levofloxacin Under what local brands and in what dosages is generic Levofloxacin sold in pharmacies of Britain, United States, and Canada? In pharmacies of the United States, Great Britain and Canada the pharmacists offer you to buy Levofloxacin according to your prescription or without a prescription under such brand names and in such strengths and dosage forms: UK US Canada Evoxil 250mg film-coated tablets Evoxil 500mg film-coated tablets Evoxil 5mg/ml solution for infusion Levofloxacin 250mg Tablets Levofloxacin 500mg Tablets Levofloxacin 5mg/ml Solution for Infusion Tavanic I.V. 5 mg/ml Tavanic 250 mg Tablets Tavanic 500 mg Tablets Levaquin 250 mg Tablets Levaquin 500 …

Continue Reading...

Clarithromycin 500 mg

Generic Name: Clarithromycin Popular Brand Drugs (Generic: Clarithromycin), which People Buy in Pharmacies of the UK, US, and Canada UK (Brand Name & Dosage) US (Brand Name & Dosage) Canada (Brand Name & Dosage) Clarithromycin 250mg Tablets Clarithromycin 500mg Tablets Klaricid 250 mg Tablets Klaricid 500 mg Tablets Clarithromycin 250mg Tablets Clarithromycin 500mg Tablets Biaxin 250 mg Tablets Biaxin 500 mg Tablets Clarithromycin 250mg Tablets Clarithromycin 500mg Tablets Biaxin 250 mg Tablets Biaxin 500 mg Tablets Clarithromycin 500mg, powder for concentrate for solution for infusion 1 .What Clarithromycin Is And What It Is Used For Read indications for use if you want to order Clarithromycin online Clarithromycin is an antibiotic that belongs …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE