Tags: Leprosy

Leishmania

Leishmania & Trypanosoma The genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the family Trypanosomatidae. These protozoans cause diseases with widely varied clinical presentations as well as geographic distributions, including leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ disease), and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). For example, the endemic zones for African and American trypanosomiasis do not overlap, the diseases are transmitted by different vectors, they involve distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis, and they follow different clinical courses. Nonetheless, the causative agents share important biological features. Each is a hemoflagellate with a kinetoplast containing its own chromosomal DNA with highly conserved and repeated elements, each forms a single flagellum at some point during its life cycle, and each …

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Paracoccidioidomycosis

Essentials of Diagnosis Patients usually immunocompetent. Patients in endemic areas with chronic pulmonary and mucotaneous lesions involving the mouth, nose, larynx, and face; regional or diffuse lymphadenopathy. Found in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina. Dimorphic fungus: yeast form in tissue specimens and at 37 °C; mold form when grown at room temperature in the laboratory. Thick-walled yeast, 4-40 um, with multiple buds when seen in tissue specimens. Complement fixation or immunodiffusion. General Considerations Paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Also known as South American blastomycosis, it is the most prevalent systemic mycosis found in Central and South America and is the most common endemic mycosis in this area. A. Epidemiology. …

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Treponema Pallidum

Essentials of Diagnosis • Spiral, motile, coil-shaped, elongated (0.10 um × 5-20 um) spirochete. • No reliable method for sustained in vitro cultivation. • Direct detection with darkfield microscopy or immunofluorescent antibody in early syphilis. • Nontreponemal antibody tests (rapid plasma reagin, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL]) for screening, treatment follow-up. • Treponema-specific antibody tests (fluorescent treponemal antibody test, microhemagglutination-T pallidum test) for confirmation. • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis, elevated CSF protein, or reactive CSF VDRL test suggests neurosyphilis. • PCR, DNA probes, and immunoblotting techniques promising in congenital syphilis, early syphilis, or neurosyphilis. • All patients with T pallidum infection should be tested for HIV coinfection and vice versa. General …

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Other Mycobacteria

  Essentials of Diagnosis • Demonstration of the acid-fast bacillus. • Infections more common in immunocompromised hosts. • Infections mainly pulmonary or soft tissue. General Considerations The increasingly relative importance of the atypical mycobacteria, many of which are ubiquitous in the environment, was recognized with the decline in tuberculous disease. Generally, atypical mycobacteria are unusual causes of disease in patients who are immunocompetent but can in immunocompromised hosts such as AIDS and cancer patients. Most infections caused by atypical mycobacteria are skin and soft tissue abscesses, sometimes following pulmonary infection or implantation of prosthetic devices. There have been a few reports of epidemics of iatrogenic infection with atypical mycobacteria, associated with …

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Mycobacterium Leprae (Leprosy)

M leprae is the etiologic agent of Hansen’s Disease or leprosy. Although not a common problem in the United States, it is in other parts of the world. With the advent of effective antimicrobial agents, the number of cases of leprosy worldwide has fallen from 12 million in 1982 to 6 million in 1991. It remains a significant problem, however, because the incidence of new cases has not yet declined, and much of the affected population lives in areas where effective medical treatment is difficult to obtain. Leprosy is endemic in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Pacific. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, there are virtually no cases of …

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Tuberculosis

Essentials of Diagnosis • The cardinal symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) are fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. • The most commonly infected populations include the homeless, institutionalized patients, and HIV-positive patients. • In most cases, a TB skin test (PPD) is positive. • To establish presence of infection, an acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear demonstrates the acid-fast bacillus. • In primary pulmonary TB, an infiltrate in the lower lobes of the lung is usually seen on chest x-ray. In contrast, apical lung infiltrates are commonly seen in the reactivation of pulmonary TB. General Considerations Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still an important pathogen. Approximately one-third of the world’s population is infected with M …

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Buy Generic Trecator-sc (Ethionamide) No Prescription 250mg

Ethionamide: Side Effects See also Antituberculosis drugs Ethionamide is a synthetic derivative of thio-isonicotinamide. The initial oral dosage for adults is 250 mg/day, slowly increasing up to 15-20 mg/kg/day (maximum 1 g/day). Protionamide is a pyridine derivative of ethionamide. The dosage is 250-300 mg/day. Ethionamide and protionamide have often proved to be effective in non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections. Acute rheumatic symptoms and difficulty in the management of diabetes have been reported. Organs and Systems Nervous system Mental depression, weakness, drowsiness, and hypotension are not rare in patients taking ethionamide or protionamide. Other neurological reactions include diplopia, olfactory disturbances, metallic taste, dizziness, paresthesia, headache, and tremor. Psychological, psychiatric Psychotic reactions have been described …

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Buy No Prescription Lamprene (Clofazimine) 50mg

Clofazimine: Side Effects See also Antituberculosis drugs Clofazimine is weakly bactericidal against Mycobacterium leprae. It is active in chronic skin ulcers (Buruli ulcer) and partly against Mycobacterium avium intracellulare. The usual adult dosage is 50-100 mg/day. At higher doses, its anti-inflammatory effect seems to prevent the development of acute reactions, such as erythema nodosum leprosum. Clofazimine is a strongly lipophilic dye and accumulates in tissues, especially fat, bile, macrophages, the reticuloendothelial system, and skin. This is the basis of adverse reactions, including skin discoloration. Lymphedema, diminished sweating, and reduced tearing have been observed. Observational studies In 84 patients with leprosy who took clofazimine, the most common adverse effect was a dark …

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Bell Palsy

Description of Medical Condition Paralysis or weakness of the muscles supplied by the facial nerve, typically unilaterally, due to inflammation and swelling of the facial nerve within the facial canal • Bell palsy: Idiopathic • Ramsay Hunt syndrome: Bell palsy associated with vesicles within the outer ear canal or behind the ear. due to herpes zoster infection • Facial diplegia: The simultaneous development of bilateral Bell palsy is highly unusual and conditions such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and chronic meningitis should be considered as possible explanations. System(s) affected: Nervous Genetics: There is a familial tendency toward Bell palsy Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Incidence 16 in 100,000 Predominant age: Affects all ages. Most common …

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Dapsone

DDS • Dapsone, a synthetic sulfone, is an antimycobacterial and antiprotozoal agent. Cautions • Hematologic Effects The most frequent adverse effects of dapsone are dose-related hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia. Hemolysis occurs in most patients receiving 200 mg or more of dapsone daily; however, symptomatic anemia occurs only occasionally. The manufacturer states that the hemoglobin level is generally decreased by 1-2 g/dL, the reticulocyte count is increased 2-12%, erythrocyte life span is shortened, and methemoglobinemia occurs in most patients receiving dapsone. Heinz body formation also occurs frequently. Unless severe, hemolysis or methemoglobinemia does not generally require discontinuance of dapsone therapy. These adverse hematologic effects occur in patients with or without glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase …

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