Tags: Influenza

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key symptoms and signs: abrupt onset of high fevers, headaches, myalgias, malaise, and a flu-like illness 3-12 days after tick bite; rash (80-90% of patients, initially maculopapular, then petechial, classically involving the palms and soles). • Predisposing factors: tick exposure (April through September), pet owners, animal handlers, and outdoor activities. • Commonest geographic location of infection: rural. • Confirmatory serology via IFA. • PCR with blood or skin biopsy: sensitive and specific but not widely available. General Considerations RMSF is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and is an acute tick-borne illness occurring …

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Ehrlichia Infection (Ehrlichiosis)

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key symptoms and signs: abrupt onset of high fever, headache, myalgias, chills 8-9 days after tick bite; rash (36% of human monocytic ehrlichiosis [HME] patients; only 2% of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] patients); central nervous system involvement (20-25% of patients). • Predisposing factors: tick and rural exposure (April through September). • Presentation: most present as flu-like illness. • Key laboratory features: thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and elevated liver transaminases. • Diagnosis: confirmed by a fourfold or greater rise in titers with an IFA. General Considerations Human ehrlichiosis was first recognized in …

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C Trachomatis Infections

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisClinical SyndromesDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Typical intracytoplasmic inclusions in Giemsa-stained cell scrapings from the conjunctiva. • Ligase chain reaction (LCR) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in first-void urine. • Positive culture in McCoy or HeLa cells of body fluids or secretions. • Positive microimmunofluorescence serology for suspected cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and infants with pneumonia. • Complement fixation titer of 1:64 or greater in patients with presumed lymphogranuloma venereum. Clinical Syndromes C trachomatis is associated with urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in women and men; epididymitis in men; and mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), acute salpingitis, bartholinitis, and the …

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M Pneumoniae Infection & Disease

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical Findings (Box 1.)DiagnosisDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPreventionBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCM pneumoniae is an important cause of upper and lower respiratory infections in both adults and children. Extrapulmonary involvement, including dermatological, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal, and vasculitic involvement, has also been associated with M pneumoniae infection in humans. Essentials of Diagnosis • Community acquired pneumonia. • Extrapulmonary involvement is not infrequent. • Inflammatory cells on sputum Gram stain but no predominant bacterial type. • Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. • Cold agglutinin titer of = 1:32. • Fourfold change in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM titers. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Infected humans are the …

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Legionella: Clinical Syndromes

Contents1. PONTIAC FEVER2. LEGIONNAIRES’ DISEASEDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCLegionella species are associated with outbreaks of either Pontiac fever, a self-limited influenzalike condition in otherwise healthy people, or Legionnaires’ disease, a severe pneumonic disease more common among elderly and immunocompromised individuals (Box 1). The spectrum of illness is much broader than these two clinical entities suggest, ranging from completely asymptomatic infection to fulminant respiratory failure and death. 1. PONTIAC FEVER In 1968, the first documented outbreak of Pontiac fever syndrome affected people in a health department building in Pontiac, Michigan. Epidemiologic investigation demonstrated that the infection was airborne and implicated water aerosols …

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Haemophilus, Bordetella, & Branhamella Species

ContentsHAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE & OTHER HAEMOPHILUS SPECIESEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsHaemophilus Influenzae: Clinical SyndromesBORDETELLA SPECIESEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsBordetella Species: Clinical SyndromeBRANHAMELLA CATARRHALISEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsBranhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical SyndromesTable 1. Differential characteristics of Haemophilus species associated with human disease.Table 2. Clues to the laboratory diagnosis of H influenzae, B pertussis, and B catarrhalis disease.Table 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines licensed for use in children. Table 4. Differential characteristics of Bordetella species associated with human disease.BOX 1. Clinical Manifestations of H influenzae Disease1BOX 2. Treatment of H influenzae Systemic DiseaseBOX 3. Treatment of H influenzae Localized Respiratory Tract DiseaseBOX 4. Control of H influenzae InfectionBOX 5. Clinical Manifestations of B pertussis Disease (Whooping Cough)BOX …

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Branhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical Syndromes

ContentsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCB catarrhalis causes bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a rare cause of invasive disease, including meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia without a focus, septic arthritis, and cellulitis. In addition, it is a recognized cause of acute conjunctivitis and is periodically mistaken as Neisseria gonorrhoeae in newborn infants with conjunctivitis. B catarrhalis occasionally colonizes the genital mucosa and has been reported as a cause of urethritis. Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. The signs and symptoms of B catarrhalis acute otitis media and sinusitis are indistinguishable from …

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Haemophilus Influenzae: Clinical Syndromes

Contents1. MENINGITISClinical Findings2. EPIGLOTTITISClinical Findings3. PNEUMONIAClinical Findings4. PYOGENIC ARTHRITISClinical Findings5. CELLULITISClinical Findings 6. OTITIS MEDIAClinical Findings7. SINUSITIS8. EXACERBATIONS OF UNDERLYING LUNG DISEASE9. NEONATAL SEPSISClinical Findings10. BRAZILIAN PURPURIC FEVERClinical Findings11. CHANCROIDClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCH influenzae was first isolated during the 1892 influenza pandemic and was originally believed to be the causative agent of influenza. Although subsequent studies revealed the fallacy of this idea, H influenzae has proved to be a common cause of localized respiratory tract and systemic disease, including meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, pyogenic arthritis, cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis, among others (Box 1). 1. MENINGITIS Meningitis is the most common …

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Neisseria Meningitidis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Transmission in crowded or closed populations. • Meningitis most common, but bacteremia, pneumonia, and other syndromes can occur in absence of meningitis. • Disease often associated with petecchial or purpuric rash, which may involve palms and soles. • Neutrophil-predominant cell profile in CSF, with low-glucose and high-protein concentrations. • Gram-negative diplococci inside …

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Gram-Positive Aerobic Bacilli

ContentsLISTERIA MONOCYTOGENESEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical Findings (Box 1)DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionAnthraxOther Bacillus SpeciesDiphtheriaCORYNEBACTERIUM JEIKEIUMOTHER CORYNEBACTERIUM SPECIESERYSIPELOTHRIX RHUSIOPATHIAEGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentBOX 1. Listeriosis in Children and AdultsBOX 2. Treatment of ListeriosisBOX 3. Control of ListeriosisBOX 4. Anthrax Syndromes in Children and AdultsBOX 5. Treatment of AnthraxBOX 6. Control of AnthraxBOX 7. Diphtheria Syndromes in Children and AdultsBOX 8. Treatment of DiphtheriaBOX 9. Control of DiphtheriaBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCLISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES Essentials of Diagnosis • Incriminated foods include unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses, undercooked poultry, and unwashed raw vegetables. • Asymptomatic fecal and vaginal carriage can result in sporadic neonatal disease from transplacental and ascending routes of infection. • Incubation …

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