Tags: Hepatitis

American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ Disease)

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Epidemiologic factors: time spent in an endemic zone; poor housing conditions, eg, mud or thatched housing; exposure to reduviid insect vector • History and physical exam: Romana’s sign (swollen periorbital mucosal tissues after ocular inoculation); chagoma (skin nodule at the site of acute inoculation); in the chronic phase, congestive heart failure, dysphagia or regurgitation, and constipation • Laboratory exam: 1. Acute Chagas’: trypomastigotes revealed by Giemsa smear of blood or buffy coat; culture of affected tissues, ie, the inoculation site; serologic enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); xenodiagnosis …

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Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, & Isospora Species & Microsporidia

ContentsCRYPTOSPORIDIUMEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCryptosporidium: Clinical SyndromesCyclosporaIsosporaMicrosporidiaCLINICAL SYNDROMES IN NON-HIV-INFECTED PATIENTSClinical FindingsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlTable 1. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis.Table 2. Laboratory diagnosis of Cyclospora infection.Table 3. Laboratory diagnosis of isosporiasis.Table 4. Laboratory diagnosis of microsporidiosis.BOX 1. Cryptosporidiosis SyndromesBOX 2. Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis1BOX 3. Prevention & Control of CryptosporidiosisBOX 4. Cyclosporiasis SyndromesBOX 5. Treatment of CyclosporiasisBOX 6. Prevention & Control of Cyclospora and Isospora spp. and MicrosporidiaBOX 7. Isosporiasis SyndromesBOX 8. Treatment of Isosporiasis BOX 9. Microsporidiosis in Non-HIV PatientsBOX 10. Microsporidiosis Syndromes in HIV Patients (Syndrome and Organism)BOX 11. Treatment of MicrosporidiosisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCWithin the last decade, the AIDS epidemic has heightened …

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Cryptosporidium: Clinical Syndromes

ContentsClinical FindingsClinical Findings3. RESPIRATORY INFECTIONDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEnteric cryptosporidiosis is the most common clinical presentation in patient populations. In addition, immunocompromised patients may present with cholecystitis or respiratory infections attributed to C parvum (Box 1). Asymptomatic infection has also been reported. 1. ENTERIC CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. An average of 5-7 days passes from oocyst ingestion to symptom onset. Symptoms are similar in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients but are prolonged and considerably more severe in compromised patients. Patients complain of watery diarrhea in variable quantities of = 25 L/day leading to significant dehydration. Abdominal cramps, malaise, …

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Toxoplasma Gondii

ContentsGeneral ConsiderationsToxoplasma Gondii: Clinical Findings Clinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsToxoplasma Gondii: TreatmentPrevention & ControlTable 1. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.Table 2. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology in pregnant women.1BOX 1. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Toxoplasmosis1BOX 2. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent PatientsBOX 3. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant WomenBOX 4. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in NewbornsBOX 5. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised PatientsBOX 6. Prevention of Primary T gondii Infection1BOX 7. Primary Prophylaxis in Immunodeficient PatientsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCGeneral Considerations A. Epidemiology. Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes …

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Nonfalciparum Malaria (P Vivax, P Ovale, P Malariae)

ContentsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Patients with nonfalciparum malaria invariably develop fever and chills that may become cyclic. Initially, patients experience chills, which are followed by fever (Box 1). Patients with malaria often manifest many nonspecific symptoms such as weakness, malaise, headache, and myalgias. As the disease progresses, signs of anemia, such as pale conjunctiva, may be seen. Splenomegaly and mild hepatomegaly may also be present. After hours of fever, defervescence occurs with marked diaphoresis. Patients are weakened and exhausted from the severity of the disease. In established infections caused by P vivax and …

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Extrapulmonary P Carinii Infections

ContentsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCExtrapulmonary P carinii infections occur in < 3% of patients and must be diagnosed with histopathologic samples. Primary prophylaxis for PCP with pentamidine may confer a higher risk for extrapulmonary infection. Symptoms of extrapulmonary involvement are nonspecific, usually consisting of fevers, chills, and sweats. Although any area of the body may be involved, splenomegaly with cysts and thyroiditis are most common. Diagnosis The practice of diagnosing PCP morphologically by traditional staining methods (silver methenamine and toluidine blue) of induced sputum samples in HIV-infected individuals has fallen out of favor. Although relatively simple and inexpensive, staining of sputum …

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Candida Vulvovaginitis

ContentsClinical FindingsTreatmentBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Risk factors for Candida infection of the vagina include pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and antimicrobial therapy, although the majority of infections occur in the absence of these risks. Typical complaints are vulvar pruritus and vaginal discharge (Box 1), although a wide range of symptoms exists. Pruritus, the most common complaint, is often intense, and the discharge, classically described as cottage cheese-like, may range from a thin, white, scant discharge to homogeneously thick. Odor, if present, is mild. Other symptoms may include vulvar burning, external dysuria, vaginal irritation and …

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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key symptoms and signs: abrupt onset of high fevers, headaches, myalgias, malaise, and a flu-like illness 3-12 days after tick bite; rash (80-90% of patients, initially maculopapular, then petechial, classically involving the palms and soles). • Predisposing factors: tick exposure (April through September), pet owners, animal handlers, and outdoor activities. • Commonest geographic location of infection: rural. • Confirmatory serology via IFA. • PCR with blood or skin biopsy: sensitive and specific but not widely available. General Considerations RMSF is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and is an acute tick-borne illness occurring …

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Ehrlichia Infection (Ehrlichiosis)

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key symptoms and signs: abrupt onset of high fever, headache, myalgias, chills 8-9 days after tick bite; rash (36% of human monocytic ehrlichiosis [HME] patients; only 2% of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] patients); central nervous system involvement (20-25% of patients). • Predisposing factors: tick and rural exposure (April through September). • Presentation: most present as flu-like illness. • Key laboratory features: thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and elevated liver transaminases. • Diagnosis: confirmed by a fourfold or greater rise in titers with an IFA. General Considerations Human ehrlichiosis was first recognized in …

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