Tags: Gonorrhoea

Trematodes

Essentials of Diagnosis • Blood flukes: demonstration of eggs in feces, urine, or rectal biopsy • Liver flukes: demonstration of eggs in feces • Intestinal flukes: demonstration of adult worms or eggs in feces • Lung flukes: demonstration of eggs in sputum or feces All trematode species that are parasitic for humans are digenetic. Sexual reproduction in the adult fluke is followed by asexual multiplication in the larval stage. Most species of adult trematodes have an oral and ventral sucker. The life cycles of trematodes that are important human pathogens are similar among all five major species. Eggs are excreted in the feces of the host, hatch in fresh water, and …

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C Trachomatis Infections

Essentials of Diagnosis • Typical intracytoplasmic inclusions in Giemsa-stained cell scrapings from the conjunctiva. • Ligase chain reaction (LCR) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in first-void urine. • Positive culture in McCoy or HeLa cells of body fluids or secretions. • Positive microimmunofluorescence serology for suspected cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and infants with pneumonia. • Complement fixation titer of 1:64 or greater in patients with presumed lymphogranuloma venereum. Clinical Syndromes C trachomatis is associated with urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in women and men; epididymitis in men; and mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), acute salpingitis, bartholinitis, and the Fitz-Hugh and Curtis syndrome in women (Box 1). C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see site) …

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Haemophilus, Bordetella, & Branhamella Species

HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE & OTHER HAEMOPHILUS SPECIES Essentials of Diagnosis • Haemophilus influenzae is generally acquired via the aerosol route or by direct contact with respiratory secretions. • The most common associated syndromes include otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, and, to a lesser extent, meningitis, epiglottitis, arthritis, and cellulitis. • Gram stain shows pleomorphic gram-negative coccobacilli. • In cases of meningitis, epiglottitis, arthritis, and cellulitis, organisms are typically recovered from blood, and type-b polysaccharide capsular material may be detected in the urine. • Organisms and type-b polysaccharide capsule may also be present in other appropriate sterile body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in meningitis and joint fluid in arthritis. General …

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Branhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical Syndromes

B catarrhalis causes bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a rare cause of invasive disease, including meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia without a focus, septic arthritis, and cellulitis. In addition, it is a recognized cause of acute conjunctivitis and is periodically mistaken as Neisseria gonorrhoeae in newborn infants with conjunctivitis. B catarrhalis occasionally colonizes the genital mucosa and has been reported as a cause of urethritis. Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. The signs and symptoms of B catarrhalis acute otitis media and sinusitis are indistinguishable from those present when acute otitis media and sinusitis are caused by other pathogens (Box 8). …

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Neisseria Meningitidis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Transmission in crowded or closed populations. • Meningitis most common, but bacteremia, pneumonia, and other syndromes can occur in absence of meningitis. • Disease often associated with petecchial or purpuric rash, which may involve palms and soles. • Neutrophil-predominant cell profile in CSF, with low-glucose and high-protein concentrations. • Gram-negative diplococci inside neutrophils on stained smears of CSF and aspirated skin lesions. • Fastidious organism requires special media and growth conditions. • Blood and CSF most useful specimens for recovery of organism. • Improved sensitivity of detection with PCR in CSF, but not widely available. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. N meningitidis is found only in humans and …

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Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen. Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be responsible for epidemics in the Napoleonic and Persian armies in the early 1800s. The pathogen was first described in 1886 by Weichselbaum, who observed gram-negative diplococci in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a young …

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Ciprofloxacin 250mg, 500mg, 750mg Tablets [Cipro, Ciproxin]

Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin Information For The User Ciprofloxacin 250mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 500mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 750mg Film-Coated Tablets 1. What Are Ciprofloxacin Tablets And What Are They Used For? Ciprofloxacin belongs to a group of medicines known as the quinolone antibacterials, fluoroquinolones. It has high anti-bacterial activity against a wide range of organisms. Ciprofloxacin works by killing bacteria that cause infections, it only works with specific strains of bacteria. Adults: Ciprofloxacin is used to treat the following bacterial infections: respiratory tract infections(Eg. certain types of pneumonia) long lasting or recurring ear or sinus infections urinary tract infections (bladder and kidneys infection) infections of the testicles genital organ infections in women(e.g. …

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Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970′s for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) …

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Order Tetracycline (Sumycin) No Prescription 250\500mg

Tetracycline: Side Effects See also Individual agents The tetracyclines are a closely related group of antibiotics with comparable pharmacological properties but different pharmacokinetic characteristics. They have both the advantages and disadvantages of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Tetracyclines are effective not only against bacteria and spirochetes, but also against some forms of Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Rickettsia, as well as protozoa. They affect multiplying microorganisms by inhibiting ribosomal protein synthesis. Their effect is therefore primarily bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, depending on the kind of microorganism. Most of the adverse effects of the tetracyclines depend on the concentration of the antibiotic in the affected organ. The more lipophilic drugs are more potent with regard to their …

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Cervicitis

Description of Medical Condition An inflammation of the uterine cervix. • Infectious cervicitis may be caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasmas, Herpes simplex or Trichomonas vaginalis. • Chronic cervicitis is characterized by inflammation of the cervix without an identified pathogen System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: • Gonorrhea: 166/100,000; 2% of sexually active women < age 30 • Chlamydia: 290/100,000; 5-35% of women • Trichomonas: 1200/100,000; 5-25% of women Predominant age: Infectious cervicitis is most common in adolescents, but can be seen in women of any age Predominant sex: Female only Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Mucopurulent (yellow) discharge from the cervix • Cervical …

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