Tags: Gonorrhea

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen. Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be responsible for epidemics in the Napoleonic and Persian armies in the early 1800s. The pathogen was first described in 1886 by Weichselbaum, who observed gram-negative diplococci in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a young […]

Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970's for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) […]

Cervicitis, Ectropion & True Erosion

Description of Medical Condition Cervicitis — inflammatory changes due to infections Ectropion — eversion of the cervix in pregnancy True erosion — loss of overlying vaginal epithelium due to trauma, e.g., forceful insertion of vaginal speculum in patient with atrophic mucosa System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Cervicitis — very common in sexually active women Ectropion — with oral contraceptive use; very common in pregnant women True erosion — occasionally seen in postmenopausal women Predominant age: Sexually active women Predominant sex: Female only Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease Cervicitis — metrorrhagia, post-coital bleeding, vaginal discharge Ectropion — red cervix due to color of the columnar epithelium True erosion […]


Description of Medical Condition An inflammation of the uterine cervix. Infectious cervicitis may be caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, ureaplasmas, Herpes simplex or Trichomonas vaginalis. Chronic cervicitis is characterized by inflammation of the cervix without an identified pathogen System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Gonorrhea: 166/100,000; 2% of sexually active women < age 30 Chlamydia: 290/100,000; 5-35% of women Trichomonas: 1200/100,000; 5-25% of women Predominant age: Infectious cervicitis is most common in adolescents, but can be seen in women of any age Predominant sex: Female only Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease Mucopurulent (yellow) discharge from the cervix Cervical erosion or erythema Easily induced endocervical mucosal […]

Cervical Dysplasia

Description of Medical Condition Pre-invasive neoplastic epithelial changes in the transformation zone of the uterine cervix often associated with human papilloma virus infections Mild dysplasia (CIN I or SIL low grade) — cellular changes are limited to the lower one-third of the squamous epithelium Moderate dysplasia (CIN II or SIL high grade) — cellular changes are limited to the lower two-thirds of the squamous epithelium Severe dysplasia (CIN III or SIL high grade or carcinoma in situ) — cellular changes involves the full thickness of the squamous epithelium System(s) affected: Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Difficult to assess due to wide variability in false negative Papsmear reporting and uneven distribution […]

Condyloma Acuminata

Description of Medical Condition Condyloma acuminata are soft skin colored, fleshy warts that are caused by the HPV (human papilloma virus). There are now > 100 known types of HPV and types 6, 11,16,18, 31, 33, 35 have been associated with condyloma acuminata. The disease is highly contagious, can appear singly or in groups, small or large. They appear in the vagina, on the cervix, around the external genitalia and rectum, in the urethra, anus, also conjunctival, nasal, oral and laryngeal warts and occasionally, the throat. The incubation period may be from 1-6 months. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Reproductive Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Most common viral sexually transmitted disease in the […]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Definition The spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases includes the classic venereal diseases – gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale – as well as a variety of other pathogens known to be spread by sexual contact (Table Sexually Transmitted Diseases). Common clinical syndromes associated with sexually transmitted diseases are listed in Table Selected Syndromes Associated with Common Sexually Transmitted Pathogens. The most current information on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  can be found at http://www.cdc.gov. TABLE. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Disease Associated Pathogens Bacterial Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae Syphilis Treponema pallidum Chancroid Hemophilus ducreyi Granuloma inguinale Calymmatobacterium granulomatis Enteric disease […]


Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative diplococcus estimated to cause up to 600,000 infections per year in the United States. Clinical presentation Infected individuals may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, have complicated or uncomplicated infections, and have infections involving several anatomic sites. Approximately 15% of women with gonorrhea develop pelvic inflammatory disease. Left untreated, pelvic inflammatory disease can be an indirect cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancies. In 0.5% to 3.0% of patients with gonorrhea, the gonococci invade the bloodstream and produce disseminated disease. The usual clinical manifestations of disseminated gonnococcal infection are tender necrotic skin lesions, tenosynovitis, and monoarticular arthritis. Diagnosis Diagnosis of gonococcal infections can be made by gram-stained smears, culture […]


The causative organism of syphilis is Treponema pallidum, a spirochete. Syphilis is usually acquired by sexual contact with infected mucous membranes or cutaneous lesions, although on rare occasions it can be acquired by nonsexual personal contact, accidental inoculation, or blood transfusion. Clinical presentation The clinical presentation of syphilis is varied, with progression through multiple stages possible in untreated or inadequately treat patients (Table Presentation of Syphilis Infections). Primary Syphilis Primary syphilis is characterized by the appearance of a chancre on cutaneous or mucocutaneous tissue. Chancres persist only for 1 to 8 weeks before spontaneously disappearing. TABLE. Treatment of Gonorrhea Type of Infection Recommended Regimensa Alternative Regimensb Uncomplicated infections of the cervix, […]


Infections caused by C. trachomatis are believed to be the most common STD in the United States that has more than doubled in the past 10 years. Clinical presentation In comparison with gonorrhea, chlamydial genital infections are more frequently asymptomatic, and when present, symptoms tend to be less noticeable. Table Presentation of Chlamydia Infections summarizes the usual clinical presentation of chlamydial infections. Similar to gonorrhea, chlamydia may be transmitted to an infant during contact with infected cervicovaginal secretions. Nearly two thirds of infants acquire chlamydial infection after endocervical exposure, with the primary morbidity associated with seeding of the infant's eyes, nasopharynx, rectum, or vagina. Diagnosis Culture of endocervical or urethral epithelial […]