Tags: Gas gangrene

Important Anaerobes

Essentials of Diagnosis • Foul odor of draining purulence. • Presence of gas in tissues. • No organism growth on aerobic culture media. • Infection localized in the proximity of mucosal surface. • Presence of septic thrombophlebitis. • Tissue necrosis and abscess formation. • Association with malignancies (especially intestinal). • Mixed organism morphologies on Gram stain. General Considerations A. Epidemiology and Ecology. Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant component of the normal microbial flora of the human body. The following sites harbor the vast majority of them: • Skin: Mostly gram-positive bacilli such as Propionibacterium acnes • Gastrointestinal tract: In the oral cavity Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., microaerophillic streptococci, and …

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Important Anaerobes: Clinical Syndromes

Box 1 summarizes different clinical syndromes associated with anaerobic bacteria. The sections that follow describe the various syndromes, including clinical findings. For some syndromes, specific diagnosis and treatment information is included as well. For other syndromes, see summary diagnosis and treatment sections at the end of the chapter. HEAD & NECK 1. EAR & PARANASAL SINUSES The flora in as many as two-thirds of chronic sinusitis and otitis cases includes B fragilis, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Porphyromonas spp. It is not surprising that ~50% of patients with chronic otitis media are infected with anaerobic bacteria, B fragilis being the most common. Mastoiditis may arise as a complication in some of …

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Streptococcus Pyogenes

Essentials of Diagnosis • Pharyngitis: presence of sore throat, submandibular adenopathy, fever, pharyngeal erythema, exudates. • Rheumatic fever: migratory arthritis, carditis, Syndenham’s chorea, pharyngitis. • Cellulitis: pink skin, fever, tenderness, swelling. • Scarlet fever: sandpaper-like erythema, strawberry tongue, streptococcal pharyngitis or skin infection, high fever. • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: acute glomerulonephritis (hematuria, proteinuria) following pharyngitis or impetigo. • Impetigo: dry, crusted lesions of the skin, weeping golden-colored fluid. • Erysipelas: salmon red rash of face or extremity, well-demarcated border, fever, occasionally bullous lesions. • Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: isolation of Group A streptococcus from a normally sterile site, sudden onset of shock and organ failure. • Necrotizing fasciitis, myonecrosis: deep, severe pain, …

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Anaerobic & Necrotizing Infections

Description of Medical Condition Gangrene is local death of soft tissues due to disease or injury and is associated with loss of blood supply. Anaerobic and necrotizing infections may be associated with gas. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Cardiovascular Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Rare Predominant age: Any Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Local pain • Foul odor • Abnormally dark skin and tissues under skin (dark green to black) • Crepitation (gas) • Fever • Rapid pulse • Fulminant course leading to death without treatment What Causes Disease? • Local injury • Superimposed infection (surface or deep; local or distant) • Carcinoma of large intestine …

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Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

Mechanisms of toxicity The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity. In contrast, the major toxicity of the penicillins and cephalosporins is due to allergic reactions. These differences are explained in part by the relative ability of specific drugs to inhibit enzymatic pathways in the host versus their stimulation of specific immune response. Not included in these lists is mention of the …

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Buy Sumycin (Tetracycline) Without Prescription 250/500mg

Tetracycline [Sumycin 250mg, 500mg] (British Approved Name, rINN) Drug Nomenclature International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish): Synonyms: Tetraciclina; Tetraciklin; Tetraciklinas; Tetracyclinum; Tetracyklin; Tetrasykliini BAN: Tetracycline INN: Tetracycline [rINN (en)] INN: Tetraciclina [rINN (es)] INN: Tétracycline [rINN (fr)] INN: Tetracyclinum [rINN (la)] INN: Тетрациклин [rINN (ru)] Chemical name: A variably hydrated form of (4S,4aS,5aS,6S,12aS)-4-Dimethylamino-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,6,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxonaphthacene-2-carboxamide Molecular formula: C22H24N2O8 =444.4 CAS: 60-54-8 (anhydrous tetracycline); 6416-04-2 (tetracycline trihydrate) ATC code: A01AB13; D06AA04; J01AA07; S01AA09; S02AA08; S03AA02 Read code: y00qJ [Mouth]; y02NR; y08DH [Systemic] Pharmacopoeias. In Europe and US. European Pharmacopoeia, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1 and 6.2 (Tetracycline). A yellow crystalline powder. Very slightly soluble in water; soluble …

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Benzylpenicillin

(British Approved Name, rINN) Drug Nomenclature International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish): Synonyms: Bencilpenicilina; Bensylpenicillin; Bentsyylipenisilliini; Benzylpenicillinum; Crystalline Penicillin G; Penicillin; Penicillin G BAN: Benzylpenicillin INN: Benzylpenicillin [rINN (en)] INN: Bencilpenicilina [rINN (es)] INN: Benzylpénicilline [rINN (fr)] INN: Benzylpenicillinum [rINN (la)] INN: Бензилпенициллин [rINN (ru)] Chemical name: (2S,5R,6R)-3,3-Dimethyl-7-oxo-6-(2-phenylacetamido)-4-thia-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylic acid; (6R)-6-(2-Phenylacetamido)penicillanic acid Molecular formula: C16H18N2O4S =334.4 CAS: 61-33-6 ATC code: J01CE01; S01AA14 Read code: y03Ux; y02H4; y07da Description. The name benzylpenicillin is commonly used to describe either benzylpenicillin potassium or benzylpenicillin sodium as these are the forms in which benzylpenicillin is used. Benzylpenicillin means either the potassium or sodium salt. Benzylpenicillin Potassium (British Approved Name Modified, …

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