Tags: Garamycin

Anaerobic & Necrotizing Infections

Description of Medical Condition Gangrene is local death of soft tissues due to disease or injury and is associated with loss of blood supply. Anaerobic and necrotizing infections may be associated with gas. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Cardiovascular Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Rare Predominant age: Any Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Local pain • Foul odor • Abnormally dark skin and tissues under skin (dark green to black) • Crepitation (gas) • Fever • Rapid pulse • Fulminant course leading to death without treatment What Causes Disease? • Local injury • Superimposed infection (surface or deep; local or distant) • Carcinoma of large intestine …

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Specific Anti-Infective Agents

Antibiotics Before prescribing a specific antibiotic, clinicians should be able to answer these questions: •  How does the antibiotic kill or inhibit bacterial growth? •  What are the antibiotic’s toxicities and how should they be monitored? •  How is the drug metabolized, and what are the dosing recommendations? Does the dosing schedule need to be modified in patients with renal dysfunction? •  What are the indications for using each specific antibiotic? •  How broad is the antibiotic’s antimicrobial spectrum? •  How much does the antibiotic cost? Clinicians should be familiar with the general classes of antibiotics, their mechanisms of action, and their major toxicities. The differences between the specific antibiotics in …

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Gentamicin Sulfate (Garamycin)

• Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Dosage and Administration • Administration Gentamicin sulfate is administered by IM injection or IV infusion. The drug also has been administered without preservatives intrathecally or intraventricularly to supplement IM or IV administration in the treatment of CNS infections; however, an injectable gentamicin preparation without preservatives for intrathecal use no longer is commercially available in the US. For adults, IV infusions are prepared by diluting the calculated dose of gentamicin with 50-200 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose injection. The diluted solution should be infused over 30 minutes to 2 hours. ADD-Vantage® vials of the drug should be diluted according to the manufacturer’s labeling. …

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Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Overview Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants. The drugs differ mainly in their spectrum of activity (the organisms against which the agent is effective), side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, and dose form availability. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against a wide range of pathogens; narrow-spectrum antibiotics tend to be efficacious against a narrower range of bacterial species, generally either gram-positive or gram-negative organisms.TABLE:Mechanisms of Resistance Against Select Antibacterial Classes, 2004 …

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Aminoglycosides

Overview. Aminoglycosides are the preferred agents for treating serious infections caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Aminoglycosides play only a minor role in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia; their use is typically limited to hospitalized patients with severe or complicated community-acquired pneumonia in which gram-negative infections (particularly P. aeruginosa) are suspected. In these situations, physicians may prescribe aminoglycosides in combination with a cephalosporin or carbapenem. Gentamicin is a prototypical aminoglycoside. Other commonly used agents in this class include the generics tobramycin and amikacin, but these agents will not be discussed further. All aminoglycosides are potentially nephrotoxic and ototoxic (which manifests as auditory or vestibular dysfunction). These concentration-dependent toxicities are reversible with reductions …

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Sepsis

Description of Medical Condition The systemic response to infection; it encompasses a broad array of clinical manifestations and overlaps with inflammatory reactions to other clinical insults (e.g., severe trauma or burn) • Bacteremia: Bacteria in the blood; may have no accompanying symptoms • Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) inflammatory reaction to different clinical insults manifest by two of the following: (1) temperature >38°C or90/min; (3) respiratory rate >20/min or PaC02 12,000/mm3, 10% immature forms (bands) • Sepsis: SIRS with documented infection (typically bacterial) • Septic shock: Sepsis induced hypotension (systolic BP 40 mmHg drop from baseline) despite adequate fluid resuscitation plus hypoperfusion abnormalities (oliguria, lactic acidosis, acute change in mental status) …

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Gentamicin Sulfate

(US Adopted Name, rINN) Drug Nomenclature International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish): Synonyms: Gentamicin Sulphate; Gentamicin sulfát; Gentamicin-szulfát; Gentamicina, sulfato de; Gentamicini Sulfas; Gentamicino sulfatas; Gentamicinsulfat; Gentamisiinisulfaatti; NSC-82261; Sch-9724 BAN: Gentamicin Sulphate [BANM] USAN: Gentamicin Sulfate INN: Gentamicin Sulfate [pINNM (en)] INN: Sulfato de gentamicina [pINNM (es)] INN: Gentamicine, Sulfate de [pINNM (fr)] INN: Gentamicini Sulfas [pINNM (la)] INN: Гентамицина Сульфат [pINNM (ru)] CAS: 1403-66-3 (gentamicin); 1405-41-0 (gentamicin sulfate) ATC code: D06AX07; J01GB03; S01AA11; S02AA14; S03AA06 Note. GNT is a code approved by the British Pharmacopoeia 2008 for use on single unit doses of eye drops containing gentamicin sulfate where the individual container may be …

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