Tags: Epididymitis

Tissue Nematode Infections

LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS Lymphatic filariasis is a bloodstream and lymphatic infection caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. The disease is endemic in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. A mosquito serves as an intermediate host and vector; the peak blood parasitemia and optimum time of the day or night for obtaining blood smears differ in various parts of the world, corresponding to the feeding pattern of the local mosquito vectors. After deposition by mosquitoes of infectious microfilariae into humans during a blood meal, 6-12 mo are required before adult worms mature and begin producing numerous circulating microfilariae to continue the life cycle. Symptoms of acute …

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Chlamydia

General Considerations Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes in both sexes. In addition, certain serotypes of C trachomatis are responsible for trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness in humans. C psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia. C pneumoniae infects approximately one-half of the world’s human population and is a cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A. Epidemiology. In the United States, genital infections by C trachomatis serovars D through K occur …

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Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections

Essentials of Diagnosis Typical intracytoplasmic inclusions in Giemsa-stained cell scrapings from the conjunctiva. Ligase chain reaction (LCR) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in first-void urine. Positive culture in McCoy or HeLa cells of body fluids or secretions. Positive microimmunofluorescence serology for suspected cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and infants with pneumonia. Complement fixation titer of 1:64 or greater in patients with presumed lymphogranuloma venereum. Clinical Syndromes C trachomatis is associated with urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in women and men; epididymitis in men; and mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), acute salpingitis, bartholinitis, and the Fitz-Hugh and Curtis syndrome in women (Box 1). C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see site) coinfections are common in women …

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Brucella, Francisella, Pasteurella, Yersinia, & Hacek

BRUCELLOSIS Essentials of Diagnosis • Suspected in patients with chronic fever of unknown etiology who have a history of occupational exposure or come from a high prevalence area. • Leukopenia. • Blood culture or bone marrow cultures on appropriate media. • Serum antibody titer = 1:160. • Polymerase chain reaction. General Considerations Brucellosis (also called undulant fever, Mediterranean fever, Malta fever) is an infection that causes abortion in domestic animals. It is caused by one of six species of Brucella coccobacilli. It may occasionally be transmitted to humans, in whom the disease could be acute or chronic with ongoing fever and constitutional symptoms without localized findings. A. Epidemiology. Brucellosis is transmitted …

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Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen. Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be responsible for epidemics in the Napoleonic and Persian armies in the early 1800s. The pathogen was first described in 1886 by Weichselbaum, who observed gram-negative diplococci in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a young …

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Order Ivermectin (Stromectol) No Prescription 3mg

Ivermectin: Organs and Systems Cardiovascular Supine and postural tachycardia with postural hypotension can occur; in one large study, such effects were found in three of 40 patients. In another there was hypotension in 13 of 69 cases, but in some series these effects have not been observed at all. A massive community study in Ghana noted hypotension in only 37 of nearly 15 000 patients treated. Transient electrocardiographic changes are sometimes seen. Respiratory In the treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis in 23 patients with single doses up to 200 micrograms/kg respiratory capacity was evaluated; there was a transient but significant fall in vital capacity some 24-30 hours after administration, apparently due …

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Ofloxacin: Side Effects

See also Fluoroquinolones Ofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug similar to ciprofloxacin. Comparative studies The safety and efficacy of topical ofloxacin ear-drops 0.3% (0.25 ml bd) have been compared with that of co-amoxiclav oral suspension (40 mg/kg/day) for acute otitis media in 286 children aged 1-12 years with tympanostomy tubes in place. Topical ofloxacin was as effective as and better tolerated than systemic therapy with co-amoxiclav. Treatment-related adverse event rates were 31% for co-amoxiclav and 6% for ofloxacin. Organs and Systems Nervous system Headache was recorded in 9% taking ofloxacin during short-course treatment of urinary tract infections. Seizures have occurred in patients taking ofloxacin. A Tourette-like syndrome developed in a 71-year-old …

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Doxycycline: Side Effects

See also Tetracyclines Doxycycline and minocycline are more lipophilic tetracyclines. They are well absorbed after oral administration. Their half-lives are 16-18 hours. Their higher affinity for fatty tissues improves their effectiveness and changes their adverse effects profile. Local gastrointestinal irritation and disturbance of the intestinal bacterial flora occur less often than with the more hydrophilic drugs, which have to be given in higher oral doses for sufficient absorption. Nevertheless, their toxic effects are similar to those of other tetracyclines and arise from accumulation in fatty tissues. Accumulation in a third compartment and the resulting long half-life may contribute to an increased incidence of various toxic adverse effects during long-term treatment, even …

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Brucellosis

Description of Medical Condition Systemic bacterial infection caused by Brucella species in infected animal products, or vaccine. Incubation period usually 5-60 days, but highly variable and may be several months. Characterized by intermittent or irregular fevers, with symptoms ranging from subclinical disease to infection of almost any organ system. Bone and joint involvement common. May be chronic or recurrent. Case fatality untreated less than 2%. System(s) affected: Endocrine/Metabolic, Gastrointestinal, Renal/Urologic, Pulmonary, Nervous, Skin/Exocrine, Musculoskeletal, Cardiovascular Genetics: None; some evidence for intrauterine transmission Incidence/Prevalence in USA: • About 100/year (105 cases in 1992; 0.34/100,000), but probably underreported • Common in developing countries; consider in immigrants • Highest rates in Hispanic population, along …

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Filariasis (Wuchereria Bancrofti And Brugia Malayi)

Potential Severity A chronic debilitating infection that can cause severe disfiguring complications by blocking lymphatic drainage. Prevalence, Epidemiology, and Life Cycle Microfilaria is less common than many parasites, being estimated to infect approximately 120 million people. Several strains of worm can cause this disease. Wuchereria bancrofii is found throughout the tropics, and Brugia malayi is restricted to the southern regions of Asia. A third strain, Brugia timori is found only in Indonesia. Infectious larvae are transmitted by the bite of a mosquito. Larvae pass from the skin into the lymphatic system, where, over several months, they mature near the lymph nodes. Adult worms (40 to 100 mm in length) can survive …

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