Tags: Encephalitis

Nematodes

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsIntestinal Nematode InfectionsTissue Nematode InfectionsClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrognosisPreventionClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrevention & PrognosisClinical FindingsTreatmentPreventionBOX 1. Nematodes Pathogenic in Human1BOX 2. Treatment of Selected Intestinal Nematode InfectionsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Intestinal nematodes: demonstration of characteristic eggs or parasites in stool. • Bloodstream nematodes (filariasis): clinical diagnosis can be made; fresh blood smear may be confirmatory. • Tissue nematodes: clinical diagnosis can be made; skin snip or other tissue examination may show organism. General Considerations Nematodes (roundworms) are nonsegmented, tapered, bilaterally symmetrical, cylindrical organisms that have complete digestive tracts and reproduce sexually. Although > 500,000 species of nematodes …

Continue Reading...

African Trypanosomiasis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCIn Africa, a wide variety of trypanosomes infect wild animals but only two cause significant disease in humans: T brucei gambiense and T brucei rhodesiense. Essentials of Diagnosis • Epidemiologic factors: living or traveling in an endemic zone; exposure to tsetse fly. • History and physical exam: 1. General: periodic fevers, wasting, nutritional deficiencies. 2. Skin: chancre at the site of inoculation, fleeting truncal rash, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. 3. Neurologic: disturbed sleep patterns (diurnal somnolence, nocturnal insomnia), mental status changes, cerebellar signs. • Laboratory: 1. Blood smear with Giemsa stain shows hemoflagellates. 2. …

Continue Reading...

Pathogenic Amebas

ContentsENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA & ENTAMOEBA DISPAREssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESIntestinal DiseaseAmebic Liver AbscessPATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMEBASACANTHAMOEBA INFECTIONNAEGLERIA FOWLERI INFECTION BOX 1. Clinical Features of AmebiasisBOX 2. Treatment of Amebiasis in AdultsBOX 3. Treatment of Amebiasis in ChildrenBOX 4. Prevention of Control of AmebiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA & ENTAMOEBA DISPAR Essentials of Diagnosis • Patient living in or having traveled to endemic area increases risk. • Frequent loose stools with blood and mucus. • Demonstration of cyst or trophozoite on stool wet mount or in biopsy specimen. • Serology positive within 7-10 days of infection, may remain positive for years after infection resolved. • Monoclonal …

Continue Reading...

Toxoplasma Gondii

ContentsGeneral ConsiderationsToxoplasma Gondii: Clinical Findings Clinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsToxoplasma Gondii: TreatmentPrevention & ControlTable 1. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.Table 2. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology in pregnant women.1BOX 1. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Toxoplasmosis1BOX 2. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent PatientsBOX 3. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant WomenBOX 4. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in NewbornsBOX 5. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised PatientsBOX 6. Prevention of Primary T gondii Infection1BOX 7. Primary Prophylaxis in Immunodeficient PatientsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCGeneral Considerations A. Epidemiology. Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes …

Continue Reading...

Toxoplasma Gondii: Clinical Findings

ContentsA. Signs and symptoms.Buy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCPrimary infection in any host often goes unrecognized. In ~ 10% of immunocompetent individuals, it causes a self-limited and nonspecific illness that rarely requires treatment. The most frequently observed clinical manifestation in this setting is lymphadenopathy and fatigue without fever; other manifestations include chorioretinitis, myocarditis, and polymyositis (Box 1). Reinfection occurs but does not appear to result in clinically apparent disease. In contrast to the usually benign course of the initial infection in immunologically intact hosts, the congenitally infected fetus and newborn and immunocompromised patients are at high risk for severe or life-threatening disease caused by …

Continue Reading...

Cryptococcus Neoformans

Essentials of Diagnosis • Routine laboratory tests often normal. • One-third of patients are afebrile. • Definitive diagnosis made by fungal culture maintained at 37°C for 6 weeks. • Cryptococcal antigen 95% sensitive in CNS infection in centrifuged CSF. • India ink examination positive in only 50% of meningoencephalitis cases. • CSF lymphocytes often low in CNS infection, especially in AIDS patients. • Cryptococcal antigen most sensitive detection method in serum. …

Continue Reading...

Histoplasma Capsulatum

 Essentials of Diagnosis • Thin-walled oval yeast measuring 2-4 mm in diameter. • Dimorphic: mycelial in nature, yeast in tissue. • Endemic within Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys. • Associated with activities that disturb dust or soil enriched with bird, chicken, and bat excrement. • Complement fixation antibody titer 1:32 or greater. • Simultaneous appearance of anti-H and anti-M antibodies. • Infection most often is asymptomatic or may cause chronic pulmonary infection; less commonly, disseminated …

Continue Reading...

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key symptoms and signs: abrupt onset of high fevers, headaches, myalgias, malaise, and a flu-like illness 3-12 days after tick bite; rash (80-90% of patients, initially maculopapular, then petechial, classically involving the palms and soles). • Predisposing factors: tick exposure (April through September), pet owners, animal handlers, and outdoor activities. • Commonest geographic location of infection: rural. • Confirmatory serology via IFA. • PCR with blood or skin biopsy: sensitive and specific but not widely available. General Considerations RMSF is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii and is an acute tick-borne illness occurring …

Continue Reading...

Coxiella, Ehrlichia, & Rickettsia

ContentsCOXIELLA BURNETII INFECTION (Q FEVER)Chronic InfectionGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlEhrlichia Infection (Ehrlichiosis)RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONSRocky Mountain Spotted FeverRickettsialpoxOTHER SPOTTED FEVERSENDEMIC (MURINE) TYPHUSEPIDEMIC (LOUSE-BORNE) TYPHUSSCRUB TYPHUSBOX 1. Q fever in Children and AdultsBOX 2. Treatment of Chronic Q FeverBOX 3. Ehrlichiosis in Children and AdultsBOX 4. Treatment of EhrlichiosisBOX 5. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Children and AdultsBOX 6. Treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted FeverBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCCoxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. are small, obligate intracellular bacteria that usually cause disease when they accidentally encounter a human host. Once inside a host cell, Coxiella and Ehrlichia spp. remain within a vacuole where they progress through …

Continue Reading...

Chlamydia

ContentsGeneral ConsiderationsDiagnosisTreatmentC Trachomatis InfectionsC Psittaci InfectionsC PNEUMONIAE INFECTIONSEssentials of DiagnosisClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentBOX 1. C trachomatis InfectionsBOX 2. Treatment of C trachomatis Genital Infections (Serovars D-K)1,2BOX 3. Treatment of Lymphogranuloma Venereum (Serovars L1, L2, and L3)1 BOX 4. Treatment of Other C trachomatis InfectionsBOX 5. C psittaci Infections in Adults and ChildrenBOX 6. Treatment of C psittaci InfectionsBOX 7. C pneumoniae Infections in Adults and ChildrenBOX 8. Treatment of C pneumoniae InfectionsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCGeneral Considerations Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE