Tags: Diarrhea

Cestodes

ContentsDiphyllobothrium Latum InfectionTaenia Solium InfectionCysticercosis (Cysticercus Cellulosea Infection)Taenia Saginata InfectionHYMENOLEPIS NANA INFECTIONEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlHYMENOLEPIS DIMINUTAEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlDipylidium Caninum InfectionEchinococcal InfectionBOX 1.BOX 2.BOX 3.Buy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCHuman infections caused by cestodes, or tapeworms, may occur within the lumen of the bowel, where adult cestodes attach themselves to the host intestine (Box 1). Alternatively, human infection may be the result of dissemination of cestodes from the bowel to involve extraintestinal sites, often by larval forms of the parasite. The life cycle of cestodes is determined by definitive hosts, in whom the mature adult worm …

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Diphyllobothrium Latum Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Stool examination reveals ovoid, yellow-brown eggs (60-75 um by 40-50 um). • Chains of proglottids (up to 50 cm long) may be passed in stool. • Proglottids are wider than long (3 by 11 mm). • Scolex has no hooklets and two grooves (bothria). • Gravid proglottid contains rosette-shaped central uterus. General Considerations D latum is found worldwide, and infection is acquired by ingestion of contaminated raw or improperly cooked freshwater fish. Because of enthusiasm for raw or undercooked fish, Siberia, Europe, Canada, Alaska, and Japan are endemic …

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Nematodes

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsIntestinal Nematode InfectionsTissue Nematode InfectionsClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrognosisPreventionClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrevention & PrognosisClinical FindingsTreatmentPreventionBOX 1. Nematodes Pathogenic in Human1BOX 2. Treatment of Selected Intestinal Nematode InfectionsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Intestinal nematodes: demonstration of characteristic eggs or parasites in stool. • Bloodstream nematodes (filariasis): clinical diagnosis can be made; fresh blood smear may be confirmatory. • Tissue nematodes: clinical diagnosis can be made; skin snip or other tissue examination may show organism. General Considerations Nematodes (roundworms) are nonsegmented, tapered, bilaterally symmetrical, cylindrical organisms that have complete digestive tracts and reproduce sexually. Although > 500,000 species of nematodes …

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Intestinal Nematode Infections

ContentsASCARIASISClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionENTEROBIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPreventionANCYLOSTOMIASIS & NECATORIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisSTRONGYLOIDIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisTRICHURIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrognosisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCASCARIASIS Worldwide, more than 1 billion people are infested with Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis or roundworm. More than 4 million people are estimated to be infected in the United States. Infection occurs predominately in the southeastern states and more commonly in younger children, and it is associated with lower socioeconomic status. The organism is acquired through ingestion of embryonic forms of the worm, which are found in fecally contaminated soil. After ingestion, the embryonic eggs hatch in …

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African Trypanosomiasis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCIn Africa, a wide variety of trypanosomes infect wild animals but only two cause significant disease in humans: T brucei gambiense and T brucei rhodesiense. Essentials of Diagnosis • Epidemiologic factors: living or traveling in an endemic zone; exposure to tsetse fly. • History and physical exam: 1. General: periodic fevers, wasting, nutritional deficiencies. 2. Skin: chancre at the site of inoculation, fleeting truncal rash, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. 3. Neurologic: disturbed sleep patterns (diurnal somnolence, nocturnal insomnia), mental status changes, cerebellar signs. • Laboratory: 1. Blood smear with Giemsa stain shows hemoflagellates. 2. …

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Giardia

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsGiardia: Clinical Syndromes Table 1. Laboratory diagnosis of giardiasis.1BOX 1. GiardiasisBOX 2. Treatment of GiardiasisBOX 3. Prevention & Control of GiardiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key symptoms include initially profuse and watery diarrhea progressing to foul-smelling and often greasy stools that float. • It is the most common pathogen in waterborne diarrheal illness. • Patients at highest risk include infants, young children, travelers, and immunocompromised patients. • In North America, the Rocky Mountains and mountainous regions of the northwest, northeast, and British Columbia are notorious Giardia reservoirs. • Giardiasis is diagnosed either by identification of cysts or trophozoites …

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Giardia: Clinical Syndromes

ContentsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCAfter ingestion of G lamblia cysts, 5-15% of patients will have asymptomatic cyst passage, and 25-50% of patients will have diarrhea. From 35% to 70% of these patients will have no evidence of infection. The three manifestations of infection include asymptomatic cyst passage, self-limited diarrhea, and chronic diarrhea with associated malabsorption and weight loss. Factors related to each of these manifestations are unknown but are believed to be related to specific host factors, parasite load, and virulence variation among G lamblia isolates. 1. ACUTE GIARDIASIS Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. After ingestion of cysts, an …

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Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, & Isospora Species & Microsporidia

ContentsCRYPTOSPORIDIUMEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCryptosporidium: Clinical SyndromesCyclosporaIsosporaMicrosporidiaCLINICAL SYNDROMES IN NON-HIV-INFECTED PATIENTSClinical FindingsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlTable 1. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis.Table 2. Laboratory diagnosis of Cyclospora infection.Table 3. Laboratory diagnosis of isosporiasis.Table 4. Laboratory diagnosis of microsporidiosis.BOX 1. Cryptosporidiosis SyndromesBOX 2. Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis1BOX 3. Prevention & Control of CryptosporidiosisBOX 4. Cyclosporiasis SyndromesBOX 5. Treatment of CyclosporiasisBOX 6. Prevention & Control of Cyclospora and Isospora spp. and MicrosporidiaBOX 7. Isosporiasis SyndromesBOX 8. Treatment of Isosporiasis BOX 9. Microsporidiosis in Non-HIV PatientsBOX 10. Microsporidiosis Syndromes in HIV Patients (Syndrome and Organism)BOX 11. Treatment of MicrosporidiosisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCWithin the last decade, the AIDS epidemic has heightened …

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Microsporidia

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Most cases of microsporidiosis occur in male patients with HIV infection and CD4 counts of < 100. • In HIV-infected patients, microsporidiosis most commonly presents as chronic diarrhea, although cholecystitis, respiratory infection, keratoconjunctivitis, and myositis have also been reported. • Infections in non-HIV-infected patients are rare but include central nervous system infection, corneal infection, and myositis. • Diagnosis is difficult and depends on identification of 1- to 2-um spores. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Microsporidia were first discovered in 1857, but it was not until 1973 that a human case of microsporidiosis was …

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