Tags: Cystic fibrosis

Aspergillus, Pseudallescheria, & Agents of Mucormycosis

ASPERGILLUS INFECTION Essentials of Diagnosis Filamentous fungus with septate hyphae 3-6 um in diameter. Branching of hyphal elements typically at 45° angle. Specific IgG antibodies generally of no use diagnostically since most patients are immunosuppressed and will not generate antibody response. Pulmonary lesions, localized or cavitary in susceptible host. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Aspergillus spp. are found worldwide and grow in a variety of conditions. They commonly grow in soil and moist locations and are among the most common molds encountered on spoiled food and decaying vegetation, in compost piles, and in stored hay and grain. Aspergillus spp. often grow in houseplant soil, and such soil may be a source of …

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Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Disseminated & Pulmonary Disease)

Mavium is the most common atypical mycobacterium to cause disease in humans. In immunocompetent patients, M avium can cause pulmonary disease (Box 1). It is the most common pulmonary pathogen of all the atypical mycobacteria. There are several risk factors for pulmonary M avium infection besides AIDS. Patients with underlying pulmonary disease, those who have had a gastrectomy, and those with cystic fibrosis can develop pulmonary infection. Pulmonary disease can also develop in a subgroup of women without pulmonary disease but with mitral valve prolapse, pectus excavatum, and thoracic scoliosis. In immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS who have a CD4 lymphocyte count of < 100, M avium can cause …

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Haemophilus Influenzae: Clinical Syndromes

H influenzae was first isolated during the 1892 influenza pandemic and was originally believed to be the causative agent of influenza. Although subsequent studies revealed the fallacy of this idea, H influenzae has proved to be a common cause of localized respiratory tract and systemic disease, including meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, pyogenic arthritis, cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis, among others (Box 1). 1. MENINGITIS Meningitis is the most common and serious form of invasive H influenzae type-b disease. In the mid-1980s, before the introduction of effective vaccines, ~ 10,000-12,000 cases of H influenzae type-b meningitis occurred in the United States each year, and 95% of cases involved children < 5 years old. …

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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Essentials of Diagnosis • Nosocomial acquisition. • Predisposing factors include immunosuppression (neutropenia, cystic fibrosis [CF], AIDS, corticosteroid use, diabetes mellitus); presence of a foreign body, prosthesis, or instrumentation; prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use; intravenous drug use. • Most common infections include pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, otitis media, skin and skin structure infections, including ecthyma gangrenosa. • Gram stain shows gram-negative bacilli; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other tissue. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The genus Pseudomonas consists of a number of human pathogens, the most important of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found widely in soil, water, and organic material, reflecting its limited …

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Infections in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis

Patients with CF demonstrate particularly complex host-parasite interactions involving P aeruginosa. CF is characterized by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator resulting in abnormal chloride ion secretion and cellular dehydration. A continuous cycle of cellular inflammation with increased numbers of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, increased interleukin 8 secretion, viscous mucus, mucus plugging of airways, and infection results. Whether P aeruginosa infections play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease is still a matter of debate, but research has established a complex interaction. Colonization rates for P aeruginosa increase with age and reach 60-80% for adult CF patients. One of the effects of the genetic mutation causing CF is …

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Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Essentials of Diagnosis • Most important respiratory pathogen of infancy. • Passively acquired maternal antibodies provide no protection. • Can infect upper and lower respiratory tract. • Symptomatic reinfection occurs throughout life. • Children with pulmonary or cardiac disease can have serious morbidity from infection. • Yearly reinfection is common throughout life. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) produces a yearly epidemic in temperate climates. Most commonly, it causes bronchiolitis but can also cause upper respiratory infections, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia (Table 1). In the United States, RSV activity is greatest from December through April. Some variation occurs year to year. The epidemic lasts from 2 to 5 months. Essentially …

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Parainfluenza Virus

Essentials of Diagnosis • Ubiquitous viral agent. • Usually diagnosed on clinical findings. • Can infect upper and lower respiratory tract in all ages. • Most common etiology of acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) in infants and toddlers. • Frequent cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. • Yearly reinfection is common. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Parainfluenza is a ubiquitous virus. It is the primary cause of acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup) in children aged 6 months to 3 years. It is capable of infecting the lower respiratory tract as well by manifesting as bronchiolitis or pneumonia (Box 1). Outbreaks can follow regular epidemic patterns or be sporadic. Certain antigenic types (described below) do …

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Ciprofloxacin 250mg, 500mg, 750mg Tablets [Cipro, Ciproxin]

Generic Name: Ciprofloxacin Information For The User Ciprofloxacin 250mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 500mg Film-Coated Tablets Ciprofloxacin 750mg Film-Coated Tablets 1. What Are Ciprofloxacin Tablets And What Are They Used For? Ciprofloxacin belongs to a group of medicines known as the quinolone antibacterials, fluoroquinolones. It has high anti-bacterial activity against a wide range of organisms. Ciprofloxacin works by killing bacteria that cause infections, it only works with specific strains of bacteria. Adults: Ciprofloxacin is used to treat the following bacterial infections: respiratory tract infections(Eg. certain types of pneumonia) long lasting or recurring ear or sinus infections urinary tract infections (bladder and kidneys infection) infections of the testicles genital organ infections in women(e.g. …

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Penicillins: Organs and Systems: Hematologic

Since the days when chloramphenicol was more commonly used, it has been recognized that many antimicrobial drug are associated with severe blood dyscrasias, such as aplastic anemia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, throm-bocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Information on this association has come predominantly from case series and hospital surveys (38^. Some evidence can be extracted from population-based studies that have focused on aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis and their association with many drugs, including antimicrobial drugs. The incidence rates of blood dyscrasias in the general population have been estimated in a cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, using data from a General Practice Research Database in Spain. The study population consisted of 822048 patients …

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Oder Cheap No Prescription Chloromycetin (Chloramphenicol) 250mg

Chloramphenicol: Organs and Systems Cardiovascular The “gray syndrome” is the term given to the vasomotor collapse that occurs in neonates who are given excessive parenteral doses of chloramphenicol. The syndrome is characterized by an ashen gray, cyanotic color of the skin, a fall in body temperature, vomiting, a protuberant abdomen, refusal to suck, irregular and rapid respiration, and lethargy. It is mainly seen in newborn infants, particularly when premature. It usually begins 2-9 days after the start of treatment. Inadequate glucuronyl transferase activity combined with reduced glomerular filtration in the neonatal period is responsible for a longer half-life and accumulation of the drug. In addition, the potency of chloramphenicol to inhibit …

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