Tags: Combivir

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative …

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Nucleoside analogs

Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors have formed the backbone of anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy for the last decade (see Table Characteristics of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors). Reverse transcription is necessary for human immunodeficiency virus RNA to be used as a template to produce viral DNA, which can be integrated into the cellular genome. In order for reverse transcription to take place, deoxynucleotide must be added to the end of the elongating DNA. A 3′-hydroxyl group is present on the sugar moiety of deoxynucleotides that can form a 3′,5′-phosphodiester bond allowing further addition of nucleotide triphosphates. Several deoxynucleotide analogs have been synthesized that differ from normal deoxynucleotides in that the 3′-hydroxyl group …

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Patient Compliance and Issues Related to Dosage and Administration

• Patient Compliance Patient compliance with recommended regimens (even when asymptomatic) is essential to the potential benefits of antiretroviral therapy. Adherence to antiretroviral regimens is an important determinant of both the degree and duration of virologic suppression. Excellent adherence has been shown to increase the likelihood of sustained virologic control, which is important for reducing HIV-associated morbidity and mortality. Poor adherence has been shown to increase the likelihood of virologic failure and can lead to the development of resistance and limit the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy. There is evidence that nonadherence in patients receiving HAART is the strongest predictor of failure to achieve suppression of viral load to levels below the …

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HIV Protease Inhibitors

The fact that hyperglycemia, new-onset diabetes mellitus, exacerbation of preexisting diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis have occurred in HIV-infected individuals receiving HIV protease inhibitors should be considered when these drugs are used during pregnancy. Because pregnancy is itself a risk factor for hyperglycemia and it is not known whether use of an HIV protease inhibitor exacerbates this risk, glucose concentrations should be monitored closely in pregnant women receiving these drugs and these women should be advised about the warning signs of hyperglycemia and diabetes (e.g., increased thirst and hunger, unexplained weight loss, increased urination, fatigue, dry or itchy skin). Because hyperbilirubinemia (generally reported as an increase in indirect bilirubin) has been …

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Initial Antiretroviral Therapy in Treatment-naive Adults

A decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy in an HIV-infected individual generally is based on the clinical and immunologic status of the patient and the risk of disease progression and should be guided by the patient’s plasma HIV-1 RNA level and CD4+ T-cell count. Most experts recommend that antiretroviral therapy be initiated in all HIV-infected adults with advanced HIV disease. This includes those who are symptomatic with AIDS or severe symptoms, regardless of CD4+ T-cell counts and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, as well as asymptomatic AIDS patients who have CD4+ T-cell counts less than 200/mm3, regardless of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Many experts also recommend that antiretroviral therapy be initiated in all …

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Buy Retrovir (Zidovudine) Without Prescription 100/300mg

Combivir (Lamivudine / Zidovudine) 150 mg/300 mg film-coated tablets 1. What Combivir is and what it is used for Read indications for use if you want to order Lamivudine/Zidovudine online Combivir is used to treat HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection in adults and children. Combivir contains two active ingredients that are used to treat HIV infection: lamivudine and zidovudine. Both of these belong to a group of anti-retroviral medicines called nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Combivir does not completely cure HIV infection; it reduces the amount of virus in your body, and keeps it at a low level. It also increases the CD4 cell count in your blood. CD4 cells are …

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Order Cheap Epivir (Lamivudine) Without Prescription 100/300mg

Lamivudine (3TC) (Epivir Tablets 150 Mg) Lamivudine is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which inhibits replication of HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV). HIV infection: Epivir is used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV infection. Chronic hepatitis B: Epivir-HBV is used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B associated with evidence of hepatitis B viral replication and active liver inflammation. Lamivudine, the (-)-enantiomer of 2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thia-cytidine, is a nucleoside analog that inhibits HIV reverse transcriptase and HBV DNA polymerase. It inhibits HBV replication in vitro by 50% at concentrations of 4 to 7 ng / mL with negligible cellular cytotoxicity. Cellular enzymes convert lamivudine to the triphosphate, …

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