Tags: Colistin

Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen. Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be responsible for epidemics in the Napoleonic and Persian armies in the early 1800s. The pathogen was first described in 1886 by Weichselbaum, who observed gram-negative diplococci in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a young …

Continue Reading...

Group B Streptococcus (S Agalactiae) Clinical Syndromes

1. EARLY-ONSET GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL NEONATAL INFECTION Early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection has three major clinical expressions: bacteremia with no identifiable focus of infection, pneumonia, and meningitis (Box 1). Signs and symptoms of early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection include lethargy, poor feeding, jaundice, abnormal temperature, grunting respirations, pallor, and hypotension. In most infants with pneumonia, symptoms of respiratory distress are present at or within a few hours after birth. Signs of respiratory distress associated with pneumonia include apnea, grunting, tachypnea, and cyanosis. The radiographic findings in infants with pneumonia may be indistinguishable from those of hyaline membrane disease. Infants with meningitis have a clinical presentation that initially cannot be …

Continue Reading...

Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970′s for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) …

Continue Reading...

Penicillins: Organs and Systems: Hematologic

Since the days when chloramphenicol was more commonly used, it has been recognized that many antimicrobial drug are associated with severe blood dyscrasias, such as aplastic anemia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, throm-bocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Information on this association has come predominantly from case series and hospital surveys (38^. Some evidence can be extracted from population-based studies that have focused on aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis and their association with many drugs, including antimicrobial drugs. The incidence rates of blood dyscrasias in the general population have been estimated in a cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, using data from a General Practice Research Database in Spain. The study population consisted of 822048 patients …

Continue Reading...

Central Nervous System Infections

Definition Central nervous system infections include a wide variety of clinical conditions and etiologies: meningitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, brain and meningeal abscesses, and shunt infections. The focus of this chapter is meningitis. Pathophysiology Infections are the result of hematogenous spread from a primary infection site, seeding from a parameningeal focus, reactivation from a latent site, trauma, or congenital defects in the central nervous system. central nervous system infections may be caused by a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. The most common causes of bacterial meningitis include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, Listeria monocytogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae. The critical first step in the acquisition of acute bacterial meningitis is nasopharyngeal colonization of …

Continue Reading...

Capreomycin Sulfate

• Capreomycin, a polypeptide antibiotic complex of 4 microbiologically active components, is an antituberculosis agent. Uses • Tuberculosis • Active Tuberculosis Capreomycin is used in conjunction with other antituberculosis agents in the treatment of clinical tuberculosis. The American Thoracic Society (ATS), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) currently recommend several possible multiple-drug regimens for the treatment of culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. These regimens have a minimum duration of 6 months (26 weeks), and consist of an initial intensive phase (2 months) and a continuation phase (usually either 4 or 7 months). Capreomycin is considered a second-line antituberculosis agent for use in these regimens. …

Continue Reading...

Amphotericin B (Fungilin, Fungizone, Abelcet, Fungisome, Amphocil)

• Amphotericin B, an amphoteric polyene macrolide, is an antifungal antibiotic. Drug Interactions Systematic drug interaction studies have not been performed to date using amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex, amphotericin B lipid complex, or amphotericin B liposomal. The fact that drug interactions reported with conventional IV amphotericin B could also occur with these lipid-based or liposomal formulations of the drug should be considered. • Nephrotoxic Drugs Since nephrotoxic effects may be additive, the concurrent or sequential use of IV amphotericin B and other drugs with similar toxic potentials (e.g., aminoglycosides, capreomycin, colistin, cisplatin, cyclosporine, methoxyflurane, pentamidine, polymyxin B, vancomycin) should be avoided, if possible. Intensive monitoring of renal function is recommended …

Continue Reading...

Polymyxin B Sulfate

• Polymyxin B is a polymyxin antibiotic. Uses Systemic use of polymyxin B has, in most cases, been replaced by more effective and less toxic antibiotics for infections caused by susceptible organisms. However, polymyxin B may be useful in infections caused by organisms resistant to these drugs. Polymyxin B sulfate has been used in the treatment of acute infections of the urinary tract or meninges, and of septicemia caused by susceptible strains of Ps. aeruginosa. The drug has also been used in the treatment of meningeal infections caused by H. influenzae, urinary tract infections caused by E. coli, and bacteremia caused by E. aerogenes and K. pneumoniae. Polymyxin B sulfate is …

Continue Reading...

Colistimethate Sodium

• Colistin (polymyxin E) is an antibiotic that is structurally and pharmacologically related to polymyxin B. Uses • Gram-negative Aerobic Bacterial Infections Colistimethate sodium is used in the treatment of acute or chronic infections caused by susceptible strains of certain gram-negative bacteria (e.g., Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Other more effective and less toxic anti-infectives (e.g., fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, extended-spectrum penicillins) usually are drugs of choice for most gram-negative bacterial infections, and colistimethate sodium should be used in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible gram-negative bacteria only when other more effective and less toxic anti-infectives are contraindicated or are ineffective. However, colistimethate sodium may be …

Continue Reading...

Vancomycin Hydrochloride

• Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic that is unrelated to other commercially available antibiotics. Drug Interactions • Ototoxic and Nephrotoxic Drugs Because of the possibility of additive toxicities, the concurrent or sequential systemic or topical use of other ototoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, bacitracin, cisplatin, colistin, polymyxin B) and vancomycin requires careful monitoring of renal and auditory functions; these drugs should be used with caution in patients receiving vancomycin therapy. Acute Toxcicity Limited information is available on the acute toxicity of vancomycin. The IV LD50 of the drug in rats or mice is 319 or 400 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of vancomycin overdosage is mainly supportive with maintenance …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE