Tags: Coccidioidomycosis


Leishmania & Trypanosoma The genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma are members of the family Trypanosomatidae. These protozoans cause diseases with widely varied clinical presentations as well as geographic distributions, including leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis (Chagas' disease), and African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). For example, the endemic zones for African and American trypanosomiasis do not overlap, the diseases are transmitted by different vectors, they involve distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis, and they follow different clinical courses. Nonetheless, the causative agents share important biological features. Each is a hemoflagellate with a kinetoplast containing its own chromosomal DNA with highly conserved and repeated elements, each forms a single flagellum at some point during its life cycle, and each […]

Fusarium, Penicillium, Paracoccidioides, & Agents of Chromomycosis

FUSARIUM INFECTION Essentials of Diagnosis Worldwide geographic distribution. Mold, septate hyphae 3-8 um in diameter. A rare infection in severely immunocompromised patients. Blood cultures often but not always positive. No serologic tests available. Cutaneous involvement is common feature. General Considerations Epidemiology Fusarium spp. is an emerging fungal pathogen. Although long recognized as a cause of local infection involving nails, traumatized skin, or the cornea (eg, in contact lens wearers), deep or disseminated infection was not described until the mid 1970s. Despite its worldwide distribution and its frequent recovery from soil and vegetative material, infection is quite rare. Only ~ 100 cases involving invasive disease in immunosuppressed patients have been described in […]


Essentials of Diagnosis Patients usually immunocompetent. Patients in endemic areas with chronic pulmonary and mucotaneous lesions involving the mouth, nose, larynx, and face; regional or diffuse lymphadenopathy. Found in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina. Dimorphic fungus: yeast form in tissue specimens and at 37 °C; mold form when grown at room temperature in the laboratory. Thick-walled yeast, 4-40 um, with multiple buds when seen in tissue specimens. Complement fixation or immunodiffusion. General Considerations Paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Also known as South American blastomycosis, it is the most prevalent systemic mycosis found in Central and South America and is the most common endemic mycosis in this area. Epidemiology Paracoccidioidomycosis […]


Essentials of Diagnosis Predisposing factors include travel to the dry desert climates found in the southwestern United States and exposure to dust. The commonest source of infection is dust inhalation in the southwestern United States. The commonest infection is pneumonia. Key laboratory findings include growth of the fungus and complement fixing (CF) antigen detection by immunodiffusion. General Considerations Coccidioidomycosis was first described as a disease a little more than a century ago in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It was in San Francisco that the organism causing the clinical disease was given its name, Coccidioides immitis. Many diseases were later found to be caused by this organism, including San Joaquin Valley Fever. Epidemiology […]

Buy Without Prescription Sporanox (Itraconazole) 100mg

Itraconazole: Side Effects See also Antifungal azoles Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal drug. It is used orally to treat oropharyngeal and vulvovaginal candidiasis, pityriasis versicolor, dermatophytoses unresponsive to topical treatment, and systemic infections, including aspergillosis, blastomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, cocci-dioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracocci-dioidomycosis, and sporotrichosis. It is also used to prevent fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. Pharmacokinetics The systemic availability of itraconazole and the bioequi-valence of single 200 mg doses of itraconazole solution and two capsule formulations have been evaluated in a crossover study in 30 male volunteers. Itraconazole and hydroxyitraconazole were 30-37% more available from the solution and were greater than from either capsule formulation. However, the values of Cmax, fmax, and […]

Buy Diflucan (Fluconazole) No Prescription 50/100/150/200mg

Fluconazole [US: Diflucan 50mg, 100mg, 150mg, 200mg] Synonyms: Fluconazol; Fluconazolum; Flukonatsoli; Flukonazol; UK-49858  BAN: Fluconazole USAN: Fluconazole INN: Fluconazole [rINN (en)] INN: Fluconazol [rINN (es)] INN: Fluconazole [rINN (fr)] INN: Fluconazolum [rINN (la)] INN: Флуконазол [rINN (ru)] Chemical name: 2-(2,4-Difluorophenyl)-1,3-bis(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propan-2-ol Molecular formula: C13H12F2N6O =306.3 CAS: 86386-73-4 ATC code: D01AC15; J02AC01 Read code: y02Ug Pharmacopoeias European Pharmacopoeia, 6th ed. (Fluconazole). A white or almost white, hygroscopic, crystalline powder. It exhibits polymorphism. Slightly soluble in water freely soluble in methyl alcohol soluble in acetone. Store in airtight containers. The United States Pharmacopeia 31, 2008, and Supplements 1 and 2 (Fluconazole). A white or almost white, crystalline powder. Slightly soluble in water soluble in […]

Purchase Diflucan (Fluconazole) No Prescription 50/100/150/200mg

  Fluconazole: Uses and Administration Fluconazole is a triazole antifungal used for superficial mucosal (oropharyngeal, oesophageal, or vaginal) candidiasis and for fungal skin infections. It is also given for systemic infections including systemic candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, and cryptococcosis, and has been tried in blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. The place of fluconazole in the treatment of fungal infections is discussed in the various sections under Choice of Antifungal. Fluconazole is given by mouth or intravenous infusion in similar doses. For intravenous infusion it is given as a solution containing 2 mg/mL at a rate of 5 to 10 mL/minute (300 to 600 mL/hour). In the USA, a maximum infusion rate of 100 mL/hour […]


Description of Medical Condition Pulmonary fungal infection endemic to the Southwest USA. Can become progressive and involve extrapulmonary sites, including bone, CNS, and skin. Known as the "great imitator." Incubation period is 1 to 4 weeks after exposure. System(s) affected: Pulmonary, Nervous, Musculoskeletal, Skin/Exocrine, Endocrine/Metabolic Genetics: Unknown Incidence/Prevalence in USA: 100,000 cases per year. (0.5% extrapulmonary) Predominant age: All ages Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease Note: Over half of cases are subclinical Anorexia Arthralgias Chest pain Chills Confusion Cough, dry or productive Cyanosis Dyspnea Erythema nodosum Fatigue Fever Headache Malaise Night sweats Rash Sore throat Tenosynovitis Toxic erythema Weight loss Hepatomegaly; rare Hydrocephalus Hyperreflexia Pleural […]

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Description of Medical Condition Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized primarily by profound fatigue, in association with multiple systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms, lasting at least 6 months. The fatigue must have a new or definite onset (i.e., not lifelong), is not relieved by rest, and results in a substantial reduction in previous activities (occupation, education, social, and personal). System(s) affected: Endocrine/Metabolic, Musculoskeietal Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: 10/100,000 Predominant age: Young adult Predominant sex: Female > Male (slightly) Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease Fatigue (100%) Ability to date onset of illness (100%) Unexplained general muscle weakness (90%) Arthralgias (90%) Forgetfulness (90%) Inability to concentrate (90%) Emotional lability (90%) Myalgias (90%) […]


Definition Table Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1993 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection in Adults and AIDS Surveillance Case Definition and Table Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1994 Revised Classification System for HIV Infection in Children Younger than 13 Years present the revised classification systems for adult and child HIV infection. Pathogenesis Transmission of HIV Infection with HIV occurs through three primary modes: sexual, parenteral, and perinatal. Sexual intercourse, primarily receptive anal and vaginal intercourse, is the most common vehicle for transmission. The probability of HIV transmission from receptive anorectal intercourse is 0.1% to 3% per sexual contact and 0.1% to 0.2% per sexual contact for receptive vaginal […]