Tags: Claforan

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative …

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Cefotaxime Sodium

• Cefotaxime is a semisynthetic, third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Uses Cefotaxime is used for the treatment of serious bone and joint infections, serious intra-abdominal and gynecologic infections (including peritonitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, pelvic cellulitis), meningitis and other CNS infections, serious lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia), bacteremia/septicemia, serious skin and skin structure infections, and serious urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria. The drug also is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, typhoid fever and other infections caused by Salmonella, infections caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus, and Lyme disease. Cefotaxime also has been used for perioperative prophylaxis. Prior to initiation of cefotaxime therapy, appropriate specimens should be obtained …

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Order Cefpodoxime (Vantin) Without Prescription 200mg

Cefpodoxime Proxetil Cefpodoxime proxetil (Pfizer’s Vantin, Sanofi-Aven-tis’ Orelox, Sankyo’s Banan) is an extended-spectrum, third-generation, oral cephalosporin. Sankyo originally developed cefpodoxime proxetil and first launched the cephalosporin in Japan in 1989. It was marketed in the United States by Upjohn (later Pharmacia) in 1992; Aventis marketed the agent in Europe. A generic version of cefpodoxime developed by Ranbaxy has been approved in the United States. Cefpodoxime is indicated for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae (including β-lactamase-producing strains). Cefpodoxime proxetil is an esterified pro-drug of cefpodoxime created for oral formulation. It is stable in the presence of most β-lactamase enzymes, effectively extending its spectrum of activity …

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Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Current Therapies

Overview Many highly effective agents are available for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia) and other community-acquire respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Currently marketed antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia demonstrate similar efficacy rates in clinical trials, and these agents have generally achieved clinical symptom resolution in 85-95% of trial participants. The drugs differ mainly in their spectrum of activity (the organisms against which the agent is effective), side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, and dose form availability. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against a wide range of pathogens; narrow-spectrum antibiotics tend to be efficacious against a narrower range of bacterial species, generally either gram-positive or gram-negative organisms.TABLE:Mechanisms of Resistance Against Select Antibacterial Classes, 2004 …

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Cefotaxime.Ceftriaxone

Cefotaxime Cefotaxime (Abbott/Sanofi-Aventis’ Claforan, generics) is a third-generation, parenteral cephalosporin available for IV or intramuscular (IM) administration. Cefotaxime was first marketed in 1981 in the United States, where generic versions of the injection are now available. The agent is also marketed by Roche in Japan. Cefotaxime is indicated for the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by S. pneumoniae and other streptococci, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and other Klebsiella species, H. influenzae (including ampicillin-resistant strains). Cefotaxime is stable in the presence of many β-lactamase enzymes, which effectively extends its spectrum of activity against a number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to penicillins and other cephalosporins. Clinical and …

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Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis: Current therapies

Overview Numerous highly effective pharmacological agents are available to treat acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis). TABLE:Pharmacological Management of Underlying Disease During an Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the general pharmacological agents and classes used to manage acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The primary therapies used in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis treat the causative infection (antibiotics), relieve symptoms (bronchodilators), and treat the underlying inflammation (corticosteroids). TABLE :Current Therapies Used for Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis summarizes the leading antibiotic therapies used to treat the infection. Most acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis cases require empiric antibiotic therapy because of the difficulty in definitively distinguishing exacerbations of …

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Sepsis

Description of Medical Condition The systemic response to infection; it encompasses a broad array of clinical manifestations and overlaps with inflammatory reactions to other clinical insults (e.g., severe trauma or burn) • Bacteremia: Bacteria in the blood; may have no accompanying symptoms • Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) inflammatory reaction to different clinical insults manifest by two of the following: (1) temperature >38°C or90/min; (3) respiratory rate >20/min or PaC02 12,000/mm3, 10% immature forms (bands) • Sepsis: SIRS with documented infection (typically bacterial) • Septic shock: Sepsis induced hypotension (systolic BP 40 mmHg drop from baseline) despite adequate fluid resuscitation plus hypoperfusion abnormalities (oliguria, lactic acidosis, acute change in mental status) …

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