Tags: Chlamydia

Chlamydia

General Considerations Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittaci, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are among the most prevalent microbial pathogens in humans worldwide. C trachomatis is responsible for a variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD) syndromes in both sexes. In addition, certain serotypes of C trachomatis are responsible for trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness in humans. C psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen associated with atypical pneumonia. C pneumoniae infects approximately one-half of the world’s human population and is a cause of upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A. Epidemiology. In the United States, genital infections by C trachomatis serovars D through K occur …

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C Trachomatis Infections

Essentials of Diagnosis • Typical intracytoplasmic inclusions in Giemsa-stained cell scrapings from the conjunctiva. • Ligase chain reaction (LCR) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in first-void urine. • Positive culture in McCoy or HeLa cells of body fluids or secretions. • Positive microimmunofluorescence serology for suspected cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and infants with pneumonia. • Complement fixation titer of 1:64 or greater in patients with presumed lymphogranuloma venereum. Clinical Syndromes C trachomatis is associated with urethritis, proctitis, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in women and men; epididymitis in men; and mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC), acute salpingitis, bartholinitis, and the Fitz-Hugh and Curtis syndrome in women (Box 1). C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (see site) …

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M Pneumoniae Infection & Disease

M pneumoniae is an important cause of upper and lower respiratory infections in both adults and children. Extrapulmonary involvement, including dermatological, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal, and vasculitic involvement, has also been associated with M pneumoniae infection in humans. Essentials of Diagnosis • Community acquired pneumonia. • Extrapulmonary involvement is not infrequent. • Inflammatory cells on sputum Gram stain but no predominant bacterial type. • Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. • Cold agglutinin titer of = 1:32. • Fourfold change in specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM titers. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Infected humans are the only source of M pneumoniae organisms for transmission to new susceptible hosts. M pneumoniae is spread from one individual …

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Important Anaerobes: Clinical Syndromes

Box 1 summarizes different clinical syndromes associated with anaerobic bacteria. The sections that follow describe the various syndromes, including clinical findings. For some syndromes, specific diagnosis and treatment information is included as well. For other syndromes, see summary diagnosis and treatment sections at the end of the chapter. HEAD & NECK 1. EAR & PARANASAL SINUSES The flora in as many as two-thirds of chronic sinusitis and otitis cases includes B fragilis, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Porphyromonas spp. It is not surprising that ~50% of patients with chronic otitis media are infected with anaerobic bacteria, B fragilis being the most common. Mastoiditis may arise as a complication in some of …

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Neisseria Meningitidis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Transmission in crowded or closed populations. • Meningitis most common, but bacteremia, pneumonia, and other syndromes can occur in absence of meningitis. • Disease often associated with petecchial or purpuric rash, which may involve palms and soles. • Neutrophil-predominant cell profile in CSF, with low-glucose and high-protein concentrations. • Gram-negative diplococci inside neutrophils on stained smears of CSF and aspirated skin lesions. • Fastidious organism requires special media and growth conditions. • Blood and CSF most useful specimens for recovery of organism. • Improved sensitivity of detection with PCR in CSF, but not widely available. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. N meningitidis is found only in humans and …

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Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen. Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be responsible for epidemics in the Napoleonic and Persian armies in the early 1800s. The pathogen was first described in 1886 by Weichselbaum, who observed gram-negative diplococci in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a young …

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Pneumonia

This section focuses on the clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. The so-called classic presentation of pneumococcal pneumonia consists of an abrupt onset of a shaking chill followed shortly after by fever and production of rusty sputum (Box 2). This classic presentation, however, is not the most common. Typically, patients present because of a change in preexisting symptoms. Many have had several days of a viral upper respiratory infection marked by coryza, sore throat, and nonproductive cough, or they have chronic pulmonary disease with its attendant persistent productive cough. In these patients, the development of pneumonia is heralded by the onset of fever …

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Hantaviruses

Essentials of Diagnosis • Acute severe respiratory infection in a young adult. • Exposure to deer mice, eg, in a remote cabin. • Occurrence of disease in far western United States, especially Four Corners states. • Diagnosis by serology. • Can detect viral RNA by PCR of respiratory samples. General Considerations Hantaviruses are members of the bunyavirus group, which is the largest family of viruses and contains several human pathogens including California encephalitis virus (see site). The hantavirus group was first recognized as causing hemorrhagic fevers with renal failure in Asia and Eastern Europe but became much more prominent in the United States when the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was described in …

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Adenoviruses: Clinical Syndromes

Adenoviruses cause primary infection in children and, less commonly, adults. Reactivation of virus occurs in immunocompromised children and adults. Several distinct clinical syndromes are associated with adenovirus infection (Box 1). ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE A. Signs and Symptoms. Acute pharyngitis is usually nonexudative but is associated with fever. Acute respiratory disease is a syndrome of fever, cough, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis seen primarily in outbreaks among military recruits usually with serotypes 4 and 7. Adenoviruses are definite but infrequent causes of true viral pneumonia in both children and adults including military recruits. Laryngitis, croup, and bronchiolitis may also occur. Pertussis-like illness with a prolonged clinical course has been associated with adenoviruses. Adenovirus …

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Azyter (UK) , Trovan-Zithromax (US)

Azyter 15 mg/g, eye drops, solution in single-dose container Generic Name: Azithromycin dihydrate Popular Brand Drugs (Generic: Azithromycin), which People Buy in Pharmacies of the UK, US, and Canada UK (Brand Name & Dosage) US (Brand Name & Dosage) Canada (Brand Name & Dosage) Azithromycin 500mg Tablets Clamelle 500mg Tablets Zithromax 250 mg Capsules Zithromax 250 mg Tablets Zithromax 500 mg Tablets Azithromycin 250mg Tablets Azithromycin 600mg Tablets Zithromax-Tab 250 mg Tablets Zithromax-Tab 600 mg Tablets ZMAX SR 2 g / Bottle 1. What Azyter Is And What It Is Used For Read indications for use if you want to order Azithromycin online Azyter contains azithromycin, which is an antibiotic (macrolide …

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