Tags: Cephalothin

Vibrio & Campylobacter

VIBRIO INFECTIONS VIBRIO CHOLERAE INFECTIONS Essentials of Diagnosis • History of exposure, particularly travel to endemic or epidemic locales. • Acute onset of voluminous, watery diarrhea, with low-grade fever and mild abdominal pain, which are disproportionate to the amount of diarrhea. • During outbreaks, the presence of straight-to-curved gram-negative bacilli, with a single polar flagellum, in the stool of infected patients. • In wet preparations, these organisms demonstrate a characteristic darting or “shooting star” motility. The identification may be confirmed by motility inhibition with specific antisera. • Cultures of V cholerae from stool with differential media, such as thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) medium. • Bacterial growth in nutrient broth, without 1% NaCl …

Continue Reading...

Extraintestinal Campylobacteriosis

Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Campylobacter fetus, a less frequent cause of enteritis, is the most common cause of extraintestinal disease; other Campylobacter species that may also cause extraintestinal disease include C jejuni, C coli, C laridis, C sputorum, and C hyointestinalis. C fetus infection may manifest as fever, chills, and myalgias, without definitive localization; additionally, this organism displays a propensity to infect vascular structures. Endocarditis, intravascular infection of abdominal aortic aneurysms, and septic thrombophlebitis with vessel necrosis have been reported. Fetal death, even with appropriate antibiotic therapy, may occur. Fetal complications most commonly occur during the second trimester of pregnancy. Additional manifestations may include pericarditis, meningoencepalitis, septic arthritis and …

Continue Reading...

Other Gram-Positive Cocci

The following organisms are too rare to merit extensive discussion of clinical syndromes, diagnosis, and treatment (see Box 4). STREPTOCOCCUS INIAE S iniae has recently been described as a cause of cellulitis, bacteremia, endocarditis, meningitis, and septic arthritis associated with the preparation of the aquacultured fresh fish tilapia. LEUCONOSTOC SPECIES Leuconostoc spp. are gram-positive cocci or coccobacilli that grow in pairs and chains; Leuconostoc spp. may be morphologically mistaken for streptococci. They are vancomycin-resistant facultative anaerobes that are commonly found on plants and vegetables and less commonly in dairy products and wine. Leuconostoc spp. have been documented to cause bacteremias, intravenous line sepsis with localized exit site infection and/or bacteremia, meningitis, …

Continue Reading...

Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970′s for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) …

Continue Reading...

Central Nervous System Infections

Definition Central nervous system infections include a wide variety of clinical conditions and etiologies: meningitis, meningoencephalitis, encephalitis, brain and meningeal abscesses, and shunt infections. The focus of this chapter is meningitis. Pathophysiology Infections are the result of hematogenous spread from a primary infection site, seeding from a parameningeal focus, reactivation from a latent site, trauma, or congenital defects in the central nervous system. central nervous system infections may be caused by a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. The most common causes of bacterial meningitis include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, Listeria monocytogenes, and Haemophilus influenzae. The critical first step in the acquisition of acute bacterial meningitis is nasopharyngeal colonization of …

Continue Reading...

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative …

Continue Reading...

Toxicity of Antimicrobial Therapy

Mechanisms of toxicity The mechanisms associated with common adverse reactions to antimicrobials include dose-related toxicity that occurs in a certain fraction of patients when a critical plasma concentration or total dose is exceeded, and toxicity that is unpredictable and mediated through allergic or idiosyncratic mechanisms. For example, certain classes of drugs such as the aminoglycosides are associated with dose-related toxicity. In contrast, the major toxicity of the penicillins and cephalosporins is due to allergic reactions. These differences are explained in part by the relative ability of specific drugs to inhibit enzymatic pathways in the host versus their stimulation of specific immune response. Not included in these lists is mention of the …

Continue Reading...

Polymyxin B Sulfate

• Polymyxin B is a polymyxin antibiotic. Uses Systemic use of polymyxin B has, in most cases, been replaced by more effective and less toxic antibiotics for infections caused by susceptible organisms. However, polymyxin B may be useful in infections caused by organisms resistant to these drugs. Polymyxin B sulfate has been used in the treatment of acute infections of the urinary tract or meninges, and of septicemia caused by susceptible strains of Ps. aeruginosa. The drug has also been used in the treatment of meningeal infections caused by H. influenzae, urinary tract infections caused by E. coli, and bacteremia caused by E. aerogenes and K. pneumoniae. Polymyxin B sulfate is …

Continue Reading...

Order Clindamycin (Cleocin) No Prescription 150/300mg

Clindamycin Hydrochloride, Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride, Clindamycin Phosphate • Clindaymcin is a semisynthetic antibiotic that is a derivative of lincomycin. Spectrum Clindamycin is active against most aerobic gram-positive cocci including staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and other streptococci (except Enterococcus faecalis [formerly S. faecalis]). The drug also is active in vitro against Arcanobacterium haemolyticum (formerly Corynebacterium haemolyticum). Clindamycin is active against some anaerobic and microaerophilic gram-negative and gram-positive organisms including Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, Fusobacterium, Propionibacterium, microaerophilic streptococci, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella. Clindamycin is active in vitro against Prevotella and Porphyromonas (both formerly classified as Bacteroides); Mobiluncus (motile, anaerobic, curved rods) also are inhibited in vitro by the drug. Clostridium perfringens, C. tetani, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, …

Continue Reading...

Aztreonam

AZT • Aztreonam is a synthetic monocyclic b-lactam (i.e., monobactam) antibiotic. Uses Aztreonam is used for the treatment of complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis and cystitis), lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia and bronchitis), septicemia, skin and skin structure infections (including those associated with postoperative wounds or ulcers and burns), intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis), and gynecologic infections (including endometritis and pelvic cellulitis) caused by susceptible gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Because aztreonam has a limited spectrum of activity and is active only against certain aerobic gram-negative bacteria, colonization or superinfection with aztreonam-resistant organisms may occur. (See Cautions: Precautions and Contraindications.) The drug should not be used alone for empiric therapy …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE