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Borrelia & Leptospira Species

Contents BORRELIA SPECIESRELAPSING FEVEREssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosesTreatmentPrognosisPreventionLyme DiseaseLEPTOSPIRA SPECIESGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosesComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPreventionTable 1. Summary of relapsing fever syndromes1Table 2. Clinical stages of Lyme disease in children and adultsTable 3. Differential diagnosis of Lyme disease1BOX 1. Relapsing Fever in Children and Adults1BOX 2. Treatment of Relapsing Fever in Children and Adults1,2BOX 3. Control of relapsing fever1BOX 4. Systems Affected in Lyme Disease (in Children and Adults)1BOX 5. Treatment of Lyme Disease in Children and AdultsBOX 6. Control of Lyme diseaseBOX 7. Leptospirosis in Children and AdultsBOX 8. Treatment of Leptospirosis in Children and AdultsBOX 9. Control of leptospirosis Buy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC BORRELIA …

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Lyme Disease

ContentsGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisProphylaxisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Most common in the northeastern, upper midwestern, and western parts of the United States. • Borrelia burgdorferi is the longest (20-30 um) and narrowest (0.2-0.3 um) spirochete member of the Borrelia genus and has the fewest flagella (7-11). • Erythema migrans (EM) is a red expanding lesion with central clearing that is commonly seen during the early stage of Lyme disease. • The most common systems affected are the skin (EM), the joints (arthritis), the CNS (facial palsy), and the heart (conduction defects). • Serology is not standardized; it is insensitive in …

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Treponema Pallidum

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsPrimary SyphilisSecondary SyphilisLATENT SYPHILISClinical FindingsLate SyphilisCONGENITAL SYPHILISClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentSyphilis & PregnancySyphilis & HIVPrevention & ControlBOX 1. Acquired Syphilis in AdultsBOX 2. Syphilis in ChildrenBOX 3. Treatment of Acquired Syphilis in Adults1BOX 4. Treatment of Acquired Syphilis in Children1BOX 5. Treatment of Congenital Syphilis is Children1BOX 6. Control of SyphilisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Spiral, motile, coil-shaped, elongated (0.10 um × 5-20 um) spirochete. • No reliable method for sustained in vitro cultivation. • Direct detection with darkfield microscopy or immunofluorescent antibody in early syphilis. • Nontreponemal antibody tests (rapid plasma reagin, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory [VDRL]) for screening, …

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Brucella, Francisella, Pasteurella, Yersinia, & Hacek

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlTularemiaPlagueYersiniosisPasteurellaHACEK INFECTIONGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBOX 1. Brucellosis in Adults and ChildrenBOX 2. Treatment of BrucellosisBOX 3. Control of BrucellosisBOX 4. Tularemia InfectionsBOX 5. Treatment of TularemiaBOX 6. Control of TularemiaBOX 7. PlagueBOX 8. Treatment of PlagueBOX 9. Control of PlagueBOX 10. YersiniosisBOX 11. Treatment of YersiniosisBOX 12. Control of Yersiniosis BOX 13. Pasteurella InfectionBOX 14. Treatment of Pasteurella InfectionBOX 15. Control of Pasteurella InfectionBOX 16. HACEK InfectionsBOX 17. Treatment of HACEK EndocarditisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCBRUCELLOSIS Essentials of Diagnosis • Suspected in patients with chronic fever of unknown etiology who have a history of occupational …

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Haemophilus, Bordetella, & Branhamella Species

ContentsHAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE & OTHER HAEMOPHILUS SPECIESEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsHaemophilus Influenzae: Clinical SyndromesBORDETELLA SPECIESEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsBordetella Species: Clinical SyndromeBRANHAMELLA CATARRHALISEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsBranhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical SyndromesTable 1. Differential characteristics of Haemophilus species associated with human disease.Table 2. Clues to the laboratory diagnosis of H influenzae, B pertussis, and B catarrhalis disease.Table 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines licensed for use in children. Table 4. Differential characteristics of Bordetella species associated with human disease.BOX 1. Clinical Manifestations of H influenzae Disease1BOX 2. Treatment of H influenzae Systemic DiseaseBOX 3. Treatment of H influenzae Localized Respiratory Tract DiseaseBOX 4. Control of H influenzae InfectionBOX 5. Clinical Manifestations of B pertussis Disease (Whooping Cough)BOX …

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Haemophilus Influenzae: Clinical Syndromes

Contents1. MENINGITISClinical Findings2. EPIGLOTTITISClinical Findings3. PNEUMONIAClinical Findings4. PYOGENIC ARTHRITISClinical Findings5. CELLULITISClinical Findings 6. OTITIS MEDIAClinical Findings7. SINUSITIS8. EXACERBATIONS OF UNDERLYING LUNG DISEASE9. NEONATAL SEPSISClinical Findings10. BRAZILIAN PURPURIC FEVERClinical Findings11. CHANCROIDClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCH influenzae was first isolated during the 1892 influenza pandemic and was originally believed to be the causative agent of influenza. Although subsequent studies revealed the fallacy of this idea, H influenzae has proved to be a common cause of localized respiratory tract and systemic disease, including meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, pyogenic arthritis, cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis, among others (Box 1). 1. MENINGITIS Meningitis is the most common …

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Enteritis Caused by Escherichia coli & Shigella & Salmonella Species

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsEscherichia ColiSHIGELLA SPECIESSalmonella SpeciesEnteric FeverSALMONELLA ENTERITISClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBOX 1. Enterobacteriaceae SyndromesBOX 2. Empiric Therapy for Diarrheagenic, Non-EHEC, E coli Infection1BOX 3. Prevention & Control of Bacterial Gastroenteritis/Enteric FeverBOX 4. Treatment of Shigella GastroenteritisBOX 5. Treatment of Enteric FeverBOX 6. Prophylaxis for Salmonella Enteritis1Buy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Enteritis: diarrhea, which may be watery, bloody, or dysenteric; abdominal pain; and fever and/or; • Systemic disease: highly variable presentations that may include enteric fever, hemolytic uremic syndrome, or bacteremia with infectious foci in distant sites. • History of exposure, possibly in known endemic areas or associated with an …

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Enteric Fever

ContentsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Patients are asymptomatic during the incubation phase. Early in the course of disease, patients may experience diarrhea or constipation. Patients then develop a variety of nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, chills, weakness, malaise, myalgia, and cough. Signs, that are not always present, such as rose spots, paroxysmal bradycardia in sharp contrast to the clinical presentation and elevated temperature, and hepatosplenomegaly are clues to the diagnosis. Profound mental status changes and picking at bed clothing, termed typhoid psychosis, may develop in some patients with enteric fever. The middle phase of disease is the …

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Neisseria Meningitidis

Essentials of Diagnosis • Transmission in crowded or closed populations. • Meningitis most common, but bacteremia, pneumonia, and other syndromes can occur in absence of meningitis. • Disease often associated with petecchial or purpuric rash, which may involve palms and soles. • Neutrophil-predominant cell profile in CSF, with low-glucose and high-protein concentrations. • Gram-negative diplococci inside …

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Neisseria Gonorrhoeae & Neisseria Meningitidis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae was first described by Albert Neisser in 1879, in the ocular discharge and exudate from newborn infants with conjunctivitis. Descriptions of a condition resembling the disease gonorrhea can be found in the written record as early as 130 AD, when Galen created a descriptor for the malady by using the Greek words gonos (seed) and rhoea (flow) to characterize what was believed to be the morbid loss of semen. Neisseria meningitidis is thought to be responsible for epidemics in the Napoleonic and Persian armies in the early 1800s. The …

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