Tags: Ceftazidime

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Essentials of Diagnosis • Nosocomial acquisition. • Predisposing factors include immunosuppression (neutropenia, cystic fibrosis [CF], AIDS, corticosteroid use, diabetes mellitus); presence of a foreign body, prosthesis, or instrumentation; prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use; intravenous drug use. • Most common infections include pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, otitis media, skin and skin structure infections, including ecthyma gangrenosa. • Gram stain shows gram-negative bacilli; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other tissue. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The genus Pseudomonas consists of a number of human pathogens, the most important of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found widely in soil, water, and organic material, reflecting its limited …

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Other Pseudomonas Species of Medical Importance

P PSEUDOMALLEI MELIOIDOSIS This organism is endemic in Southeast Asia with the highest prevalence in Thailand. The organism is a saprophyte living in the soil. Infection may be subclinical, acute, subacute, or chronic. Pulmonary infection is most common. Histologically, the acute illness is represented by lung abscesses and the subacute form by caseation necrosis. Upper lobe cavities must be distinguished from those caused by tuberculosis. Debilitated patients may develop hematogenous spread of the organism to other organs. Skin lesions from direct inoculation cause suppurative lesions often in association with nodular lymphangitis and regional lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis is made in a patient from an endemic area with a compatible clinical illness who has …

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Infection in Patients With Aids

Paeruginosa infections may occur in patients with AIDS. Risk factors for infection include a CD4 count of < 100 cells/mL3, neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects, intravascular catheterization, hospitalization, and prior use of antibiotics including ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Many cases are community acquired. Bacteremia is common, and the lung or an intravenous catheter is the most frequent portal of entry. An impaired ability to mount immunotype-specific antibodies to Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide antigen has been noted in HIV-positive individuals with bacteremia. Relapse is frequent, and mortality is high, 40%. Pneumonia is usually associated with cavitation and a high relapse rate. Bacterial sinusitis is an important and frequently undetected illness in HIV-positive individuals, and P …

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Penicillins: Organs and Systems:Skin

Skin reactions are the commonest adverse effects of therapeutically administered penicillins. Penicillin-contaminated milk or meat can cause itching or generalized skin reactions or even anaphylaxis. Incidence The overall annual incidence of severe erythema multi-forme (toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome) is about one case per million, antibiotics being involved in 30-40%. The clinical differentiation between these syndromes can be difficult. Allergic contact dermatitis is usually caused by topical drugs, but is also seen in connection with ingestion, injection, or inhalation. The increased frequency of contact eczema due to cloxacillin and bacampicillin may be because they are intensely irritant and lipophilic. Mechanisms Mechanisms of non-immediate reactions are unclear; but may be immunological …

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Penicillins: Organs and Systems: Hematologic

Since the days when chloramphenicol was more commonly used, it has been recognized that many antimicrobial drug are associated with severe blood dyscrasias, such as aplastic anemia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, throm-bocytopenia, and hemolytic anemia. Information on this association has come predominantly from case series and hospital surveys (38^. Some evidence can be extracted from population-based studies that have focused on aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis and their association with many drugs, including antimicrobial drugs. The incidence rates of blood dyscrasias in the general population have been estimated in a cohort study with a nested case-control analysis, using data from a General Practice Research Database in Spain. The study population consisted of 822048 patients …

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Cardiovascular Infections

Infective Endocarditis Potential Severity Acute endocarditis is life-threatening and often requires surgical intervention.Subacute endocarditis is an indolent disease that can continue for months. Epidemiology Infective endocarditis remains a serious but relatively uncommon problem. The incidence varies from series to series, being estimated to be as high as 11 per 100,000 population, and as low as 0.6 per 100,000 population. The exact incidence is difficult to ascertain, because the definitions for endocarditis differ in many surveys. A reasonable estimate is probably 2 per 100,000 population. This means that a primary care physician will encounter only 1 to 2 cases over a working lifetime. Endocarditis is more common in men than in women, …

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Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections

Potential Severity Can be life-threatening. Often prolong hospital stay, and can be complicated by metastatic lesions and bacterial endocarditis. Case 2 A 53-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital with complaints of severe shaking during infusion of her hyperalimentation solution. She had been receiving intravenous hyperalimentation for 16years for a severe dumping syndrome that prevented eating by mouth. She had had multiple complications from her intravenous lines, including venous occlusions and line-associated bacteremia, requiring 24 line replacements. She had last been admitted 6 months earlier with Enter-obacter cloacae infection of her intravascular catheter requiring line removal andintravenous cefepime. Atthat time, a tunneled catheter had been placed in her leftsub-clavian vein, …

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Meningitis

Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis remains one of the most feared and dangerous infectious diseases that a physician can encounter. This form of meningitis constitutes a true infectious disease emergency. It is important that the physician quickly make the appropriate diagnosis and initiate antibiotic therapy. Minutes can make the difference between life and death in bacterial meningitis. The rapid progression of disease leaves no time to look through textbooks to decide on appropriate management. To assure the best outcome, every clinician needs a basic understanding of bacterial meningitis and its management. Epidemiology and Causes With the advent of the Haemophilus influenza В vaccine, the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children declined dramatically …

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Central Nervous System Abscess

Brain Abscess Potential Severity Often subacute in onset, but may be life-threatening if improperly managed. Early neurosurgical consultation is of critical importance. Case 4 A 19-year-old white man noted the gradual onset of severe left frontal headache. The headache was sharp and constant, interfered with sleep, and was not relieved by asparin. Two weeks after the onset of the headache, the teen was noted to have a grand mal seizure associated with urinary incontinence that lasted 15 minutes. On admission to hospital, he was afebrile and alert, but somewhat confused. He was oriented to person, but not to time or place. Examination of the head, ears, nose, and throat showed teeth …

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Specific Causes Of Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Great overlap occurs among the clinical manifestations of the pathogens associated with acute community-acquired pneumonia. However, constellations of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings serve to narrow the possibilities. By developing an ability to focus on a few pathogens or to identify a specific pathogen, clinicians can better predict the clinical course of pneumonia and can narrow antibiotic coverage. Streptococcus pneumoniae Pathogenesis Pathogenic strains of S. pneumoniae have a thick capsule that prevents PMN binding and that blocks phagocytosis. Certain capsular types (1, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 12 in adults, and 3, 6, 14, 18, 19, and 23 in children) account for most pneumonia cases. Type 3 has the thickest polysaccharide …

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