Tags: Amphotec

Antifungal Agents

Fungi are eukaryotes, and they share many of the structural and metabolic characteristics of human cells. As a result, designing agents that affect fungi without harming human cells has proved difficult. One major difference between the two cell types is the primary sterol building block used to form the plasma membrane. The fungal plasma membrane consists of ergosterols; the major sterol component of the human plasma membrane is cholesterol. This difference has been exploited in the development of two classes of drugs. The polyenes act by binding to ergosterol and disrupting the fungal membrane. These agents are fungicidal. The azoles inhibit ergosterol synthesis, and lowered ergosterol levels results in fungal membrane …

Continue Reading...

Fungal Infections, Invasive

Systemic mycoses, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and sporotrichosis, are caused by primary or «pathogenic» fungi that can cause disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. In contrast, mycoses caused by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., Trichosporon, Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor are generally found only in the immunocompromised host. Advances in medical technology, including organ and bone marrow transplantation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, the widespread use of indwelling intravenous (intravenous) catheters, and the increased use of potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, have all contributed to the dramatic increase in the incidence of fungal infections worldwide. Specific fungal infections Candida infections Eight species of Candida are regarded …

Continue Reading...

Antimicrobial therapy: general principles

A wide variety of antimicrobial agents is available to treat established infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. This section will cover the general principles of antimicrobial therapy and will also include illustrative clinical problems to emphasize proper decision-making in using antimicrobials. Determinants of Antimicrobial Efficacy Measurement of antimicrobial activity in vitro Susceptibility testing is indicated for any bacterial pathogen warranting chemotherapy. Drugs that irreversibly destroy the ability of an organism to replicate, and perhaps in the process destroy the structural integrity of the organism, are microbicidal. Drugs that reversibly impair replicating ability, with this function being restored when drug concentrations fall below critical inhibitory levels, are microbiostatic. In quantitative …

Continue Reading...

Amphotericin B (Fungilin, Fungizone, Abelcet, Fungisome, Amphocil)

• Amphotericin B, an amphoteric polyene macrolide, is an antifungal antibiotic. Drug Interactions Systematic drug interaction studies have not been performed to date using amphotericin B cholesteryl sulfate complex, amphotericin B lipid complex, or amphotericin B liposomal. The fact that drug interactions reported with conventional IV amphotericin B could also occur with these lipid-based or liposomal formulations of the drug should be considered. • Nephrotoxic Drugs Since nephrotoxic effects may be additive, the concurrent or sequential use of IV amphotericin B and other drugs with similar toxic potentials (e.g., aminoglycosides, capreomycin, colistin, cisplatin, cyclosporine, methoxyflurane, pentamidine, polymyxin B, vancomycin) should be avoided, if possible. Intensive monitoring of renal function is recommended …

Continue Reading...

Amphotericin B: Dosage and Administration

• Reconstitution and Administration • Conventional Amphotericin B Conventional amphotericin B is administered by IV infusion. The drug also has been given intra-articularly, intrapleurally, intrathecally, or by local instillation or irrigation. For information regarding administration of the drug as an oral suspension and administration of the drug topically, subconjunctivally, or by local instillation or irrigation. Commercially available conventional amphotericin B for IV infusion must be reconstituted and diluted prior to administration. The drug must not be prepared with any diluents other than those specified below, and strict aseptic technique must be observed. Conventional amphotericin B should be reconstituted to a concentration of 5 mg/mL by adding 10 mL of sterile water …

Continue Reading...

Amphotericin B

Drug Approvals British Approved Name Modified, rINN INNs in other languages (French, Latin, and Spanish): Amfotericin; Amfotericin B; Amfotericina B; Amfotericinas B; Amfoterisiini; Amfoterisiini B; Amfoterisin; Amfoterisin B; Amfoterycyna b; Amphotericin; Amphotericine B; Amphotericinum; Amphotericinum B; Anfotericina B. C47H73NOl7= 924.1. CAS — 1397-89-3. ATC — A01AB04; A07AA07; C01AA03; J02AA01. Pharmacopoeias. In China, Europe, International, Japan, and US. European Pharmacopoeia, 6th ed. (Amphotencin B Amphotericin BP 2008). A mixture of antifungal polyenes produced by the growth of certain strains of Strepiomyces nodosus or by any other means. It consists largely of amphotericin B. It occurs as a yellow or orange powder. The potency is not less than 750 units per mg with …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE