Tags: aminoglycosides

Actinomyces

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsDiagnosisDifferential DiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • “Sulfur granules” in specimens and sinus tract drainage: hard, irregularly shaped, yellow particles measuring from 1 to 5 mm in size • Gram-positive branching filaments arranged in ray-like projections under the microscope • Colonies with characteristic “molar tooth” appearance • Production of extensive fibrosis with “woody” induration • No specific antibody or antigen detection tests General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The Actinomyces species are facultative anaerobes that commonly inhabit the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the female genital tract, where they exist as commensals. Diversity within this genus is …

Continue Reading...

Other Mycobacteria

Contents  Essentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical SyndromesMycobacterium Avium Complex (Disseminated & Pulmonary Disease)Mycobacterium Leprae (Leprosy)Mycobacterium Kansasii (Chronic Pulmonary Infection)Clinical FindingsMycobacterium Scrofulaceum (Lymphadenitis)Clinical FindingsMycobacterium Bovis (Tuberculosis in Animals)Clinical FindingsMYCOBACTERIUM MARINUM (CLASSIC FISH TANK GRANULOMA)Clinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatment of Atypical Mycobacterial InfectionsTable 1. Mycobacterium species, their habitats, and the diseases they cause.1Table 2. Clinical findings in Mycobacterium avium complex infection.1Table 3. Clinical findings in Mycobacterium leprae infection.BOX 1. MAC in Immunocompetent PatientsBOX 2. MAC in AIDS Patients (CD4 < 100)BOX 3. Mycobacterium leprae SyndromesBOX 4. Treatment of MAC in Immunocompetent PatientsBOX 5. Treatment of MAC in AIDS patientsBOX 6. Control of MAC Infection in AIDS PatientsBOX 7. Treatment of Mycobacterium lepraeBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral …

Continue Reading...

Tularemia

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Suspected in patients with fever, lymphadenopathy, and skin lesions who have a history of animal exposure (including to wild animals, ticks, or deerflies) or are coming from a high prevalence area or in laboratory personnel who work with Francisella spp. • Blood culture or other biologic specimen cultures on appropriate culture media. • Serum antibody titer = 1:160 or a fourfold increase or decrease in titer. General Considerations Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia (also called rabbit fever or deerfly fever), an infectious disease that occurs …

Continue Reading...

Branhamella Catarrhalis: Clinical Syndromes

ContentsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCB catarrhalis causes bronchitis and pneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is also a rare cause of invasive disease, including meningitis, endocarditis, bacteremia without a focus, septic arthritis, and cellulitis. In addition, it is a recognized cause of acute conjunctivitis and is periodically mistaken as Neisseria gonorrhoeae in newborn infants with conjunctivitis. B catarrhalis occasionally colonizes the genital mucosa and has been reported as a cause of urethritis. Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. The signs and symptoms of B catarrhalis acute otitis media and sinusitis are indistinguishable from …

Continue Reading...

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical SyndromesPulmonary InfectionsInfections in Patients With Cystic FibrosisBACTEREMIASkin & Soft Tissue InfectionsURINARY TRACT INFECTIONEar, Nose & Throat InfectionsOrthopedic InfectionsEndocarditisOPHTHALMOLOGIC INFECTIONCENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONGASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONSInfection in Patients With AidsOther Pseudomonas Species of Medical ImportanceTable 1. Clues to the diagnosis of P aeruginosa.BOX 1. P aeruginosa Clinical SyndromesBOX 2. Treatment of P aeruginosa Clinical Syndromes1Buy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Nosocomial acquisition. • Predisposing factors include immunosuppression (neutropenia, cystic fibrosis [CF], AIDS, corticosteroid use, diabetes mellitus); presence of a foreign body, prosthesis, or instrumentation; prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use; intravenous drug use. • Most common infections include pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary …

Continue Reading...

Other Pseudomonas Species of Medical Importance

ContentsP PSEUDOMALLEI MELIOIDOSISP MALLEI (GLANDERS)STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIABURKHOLDERIA CEPACIABuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCP PSEUDOMALLEI MELIOIDOSIS This organism is endemic in Southeast Asia with the highest prevalence in Thailand. The organism is a saprophyte living in the soil. Infection may be subclinical, acute, subacute, or chronic. Pulmonary infection is most common. Histologically, the acute illness is represented by lung abscesses and the subacute form by caseation necrosis. Upper lobe cavities must be distinguished from those caused by tuberculosis. Debilitated patients may develop hematogenous spread of the organism to other organs. Skin lesions from direct inoculation cause suppurative lesions often in association with nodular lymphangitis and regional …

Continue Reading...

Infection in Patients With Aids

ContentsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCPaeruginosa infections may occur in patients with AIDS. Risk factors for infection include a CD4 count of < 100 cells/mL3, neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects, intravascular catheterization, hospitalization, and prior use of antibiotics including ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Many cases are community acquired. Bacteremia is common, and the lung or an intravenous catheter is the most frequent portal of entry. An impaired ability to mount immunotype-specific antibodies to Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide antigen has been noted in HIV-positive individuals with bacteremia. Relapse is frequent, and mortality is high, 40%. Pneumonia is usually associated with cavitation and a high relapse rate. …

Continue Reading...

Enteric Fever

ContentsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Patients are asymptomatic during the incubation phase. Early in the course of disease, patients may experience diarrhea or constipation. Patients then develop a variety of nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, chills, weakness, malaise, myalgia, and cough. Signs, that are not always present, such as rose spots, paroxysmal bradycardia in sharp contrast to the clinical presentation and elevated temperature, and hepatosplenomegaly are clues to the diagnosis. Profound mental status changes and picking at bed clothing, termed typhoid psychosis, may develop in some patients with enteric fever. The middle phase of disease is the …

Continue Reading...

Other Bacillus Species

ContentsGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsTreatmentBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCGeneral Considerations Bacillus species other than B anthracis are found in soil, decaying organic matter, and water, but they are rare causes of disease. Risk factors associated with Bacillus infection include the presence of intravascular catheters, intravenous drug use, sickle cell disease, and immunosuppression — particularly corticosteroid use, transplantation, AIDS, and neutropenia secondary to chemotherapy. The hardy growth characteristics of Bacillus spp. cause them to arise as common laboratory contaminants; however, they are also capable of causing severe invasive illness. B cereus and B subtilis are the most frequent Bacillus spp. to cause invasive infection. Pneumonia, meningoencephalitis, …

Continue Reading...

Group B Streptococcus (S Agalactiae) Clinical Syndromes

Contents1. EARLY-ONSET GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL NEONATAL INFECTION2. LATE-ONSET GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL NEONATAL INFECTION3. PERIPARTUM INFECTIONS4. GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA5. ENDOCARDITIS (ACUTE OR SUBACUTE ONSET)6. ARTHRITIS7. SKIN & SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS8. OTHER GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONSDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC1. EARLY-ONSET GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL NEONATAL INFECTION Early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection has three major clinical expressions: bacteremia with no identifiable focus of infection, pneumonia, and meningitis (Box 1). Signs and symptoms of early-onset group B streptococcal neonatal infection include lethargy, poor feeding, jaundice, abnormal temperature, grunting respirations, pallor, and hypotension. In most infants with pneumonia, symptoms of respiratory distress are present …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE