Tags: Amikacin

Actinomycetes

Actinomycetes are variably acid-fast, gram-positive bacilli that are sometimes filamentous and branched. Originally thought to be fungi due to their hyphae-like appearance, they are now recognized as bacteria based on their cell wall components, reproduction by fission without sporulation or budding, inhibition by antibacterial agents, and molecular phylogenetic analysis. The actinomycete chromosomes contain a high content of guanosine and cytosine. The actinomycetes include the genera Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium, which are discussed in site and site, respectively. The actinomycetes also include the genera Nocardia, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus, Tsukumurella, Gordona, Actinomadura, and Streptomyces, as well as the Whipple’s disease bacillus Tropheryma whippelii. Of these, members of the genus Nocardia are the most significant from …

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Nocardia

Essentials of Diagnosis • Gram-positive, variably acid-fast, branching filaments with aerial hyphae. • Colonies have characteristic chalky-white or cotton ball appearance. • Suspect when chronic pulmonary disease is accompanied by CNS or skin lesions. • No specific antibody or antigen detection tests. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Nocardia spp. are strictly aerobic, ubiquitous soil-dwelling organisms that are largely responsible for the decomposition of organic plant material. Infection usually occurs via inhalation of these organisms in airborne dust particles, leading to pulmonary disease. However, infection can also be acquired via direct percutaneous inoculation by thorns, animal scratches, bites, surgical wounds, and intravenous catheters. Dissemination commonly occurs to the central nervous system (CNS), skin, …

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Other Mycobacteria

  Essentials of Diagnosis • Demonstration of the acid-fast bacillus. • Infections more common in immunocompromised hosts. • Infections mainly pulmonary or soft tissue. General Considerations The increasingly relative importance of the atypical mycobacteria, many of which are ubiquitous in the environment, was recognized with the decline in tuberculous disease. Generally, atypical mycobacteria are unusual causes of disease in patients who are immunocompetent but can in immunocompromised hosts such as AIDS and cancer patients. Most infections caused by atypical mycobacteria are skin and soft tissue abscesses, sometimes following pulmonary infection or implantation of prosthetic devices. There have been a few reports of epidemics of iatrogenic infection with atypical mycobacteria, associated with …

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Tuberculosis

Essentials of Diagnosis • The cardinal symptoms of tuberculosis (TB) are fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. • The most commonly infected populations include the homeless, institutionalized patients, and HIV-positive patients. • In most cases, a TB skin test (PPD) is positive. • To establish presence of infection, an acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear demonstrates the acid-fast bacillus. • In primary pulmonary TB, an infiltrate in the lower lobes of the lung is usually seen on chest x-ray. In contrast, apical lung infiltrates are commonly seen in the reactivation of pulmonary TB. General Considerations Mycobacterium tuberculosis is still an important pathogen. Approximately one-third of the world’s population is infected with M …

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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Essentials of Diagnosis • Nosocomial acquisition. • Predisposing factors include immunosuppression (neutropenia, cystic fibrosis [CF], AIDS, corticosteroid use, diabetes mellitus); presence of a foreign body, prosthesis, or instrumentation; prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic use; intravenous drug use. • Most common infections include pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, otitis media, skin and skin structure infections, including ecthyma gangrenosa. • Gram stain shows gram-negative bacilli; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other tissue. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The genus Pseudomonas consists of a number of human pathogens, the most important of which is Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen found widely in soil, water, and organic material, reflecting its limited …

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Infection in Patients With Aids

Paeruginosa infections may occur in patients with AIDS. Risk factors for infection include a CD4 count of < 100 cells/mL3, neutropenia or functional neutrophil defects, intravascular catheterization, hospitalization, and prior use of antibiotics including ciprofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Many cases are community acquired. Bacteremia is common, and the lung or an intravenous catheter is the most frequent portal of entry. An impaired ability to mount immunotype-specific antibodies to Pseudomonas lipopolysaccharide antigen has been noted in HIV-positive individuals with bacteremia. Relapse is frequent, and mortality is high, 40%. Pneumonia is usually associated with cavitation and a high relapse rate. Bacterial sinusitis is an important and frequently undetected illness in HIV-positive individuals, and P …

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Enterococci

Essentials of Diagnosis • Gram stain shows gram-positive cocci that occur in singles, pairs, and short chains; recovery of microorganism from culture of blood or other sterile source. • Lancefield group D antigen. • Clinical isolates: Enterococcus faecalis, 74%; E faecium, 16%; other species, 10%. • Facultative anaerobes grow in 6.5% NaCl at pH 9.6 and at temperatures ranging from 10 °C to 45 °C, and grow in the presence of 40% bile salts and hydrolyze esculin and L-pyrrolidonyl-ß-naphthylamide. • Infections typically of a gastrointestinal or genitourinary origin. • The most common infections are urinary tract infection, bacteremia, endocarditis, intra-abdominal and pelvic infection, and wound and soft tissue infection. General Considerations …

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Order Amoxil (Amoxicillin) Without Prescription 500mg

Amoxicillin: A Broad Spectrum Antibiotic Amoxicillin though originally introduced in the early 1970′s for oral use in U.K., has found a gradually regular place as broad spectrum antibacterial to treat the infections of various diseases. Amoxicillin has been found to be more effective against gram positive than gram negative microorganisms and demonstrated greater efficacy to penicillin and penicillin V. Moreover, it has been found comparable to other antibiotics, e.g. ampicillin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, cefuroxime and doxycycline in treatment of various infections / diseases. In the past decade, amoxicillin has been reported to be useful in the management of many indications and is used to treat infections of the middle ear (otitis media) …

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Anaerobic & Necrotizing Infections

Description of Medical Condition Gangrene is local death of soft tissues due to disease or injury and is associated with loss of blood supply. Anaerobic and necrotizing infections may be associated with gas. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Cardiovascular Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Rare Predominant age: Any Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Local pain • Foul odor • Abnormally dark skin and tissues under skin (dark green to black) • Crepitation (gas) • Fever • Rapid pulse • Fulminant course leading to death without treatment What Causes Disease? • Local injury • Superimposed infection (surface or deep; local or distant) • Carcinoma of large intestine …

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Pulmonary Infections

Acute Pneumonias Potential Severity Acute pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening illness requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment. A delay in antibiotic treatment increases the risk of a fatal outcome. General Considerations In Acute Pneumonia Prevalence Annually, 2 to 3 million cases of pneumonia are reported in the United States. Estimates suggest that pneumonia is responsible for more than 10 million physician visits, 500,000 hospitalizations, and 45,000 deaths annually. Overall, 258 people per 100,000 population require hospitalization for pneumonia, and that number rises to 962 per 100,000 among those over the of age 65 years. It is estimated that, annually, 1 in 50 people over 65 years of age and 1 in 20 …

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