Tags: Actinomycosis

Actinomycetes

Actinomycetes are variably acid-fast, gram-positive bacilli that are sometimes filamentous and branched. Originally thought to be fungi due to their hyphae-like appearance, they are now recognized as bacteria based on their cell wall components, reproduction by fission without sporulation or budding, inhibition by antibacterial agents, and molecular phylogenetic analysis. The actinomycete chromosomes contain a high content of guanosine and cytosine. The actinomycetes include the genera Mycobacterium and Corynebacterium, which are discussed in site and site, respectively. The actinomycetes also include the genera Nocardia, Actinomyces, Rhodococcus, Tsukumurella, Gordona, Actinomadura, and Streptomyces, as well as the Whipple’s disease bacillus Tropheryma whippelii. Of these, members of the genus Nocardia are the most significant from …

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Actinomyces

Essentials of Diagnosis “Sulfur granules” in specimens and sinus tract drainage: hard, irregularly shaped, yellow particles measuring from 1 to 5 mm in size Gram-positive branching filaments arranged in ray-like projections under the microscope Colonies with characteristic “molar tooth” appearance Production of extensive fibrosis with “woody” induration No specific antibody or antigen detection tests General Considerations A. Epidemiology. The Actinomyces species are facultative anaerobes that commonly inhabit the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal tract, and the female genital tract, where they exist as commensals. Diversity within this genus is broad, which has led to taxonomic revision and reclassification of some species as members of the Arcanobacterium genus, eg, Actinomyces pyogenes. Disease occurs …

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Nocardia

Essentials of Diagnosis Gram-positive, variably acid-fast, branching filaments with aerial hyphae. Colonies have characteristic chalky-white or cotton ball appearance. Suspect when chronic pulmonary disease is accompanied by CNS or skin lesions. No specific antibody or antigen detection tests. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Nocardia spp. are strictly aerobic, ubiquitous soil-dwelling organisms that are largely responsible for the decomposition of organic plant material. Infection usually occurs via inhalation of these organisms in airborne dust particles, leading to pulmonary disease. However, infection can also be acquired via direct percutaneous inoculation by thorns, animal scratches, bites, surgical wounds, and intravenous catheters. Dissemination commonly occurs to the central nervous system (CNS), skin, and subcutaneous tissues. Nocardiosis …

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Important Anaerobes

Essentials of Diagnosis • Foul odor of draining purulence. • Presence of gas in tissues. • No organism growth on aerobic culture media. • Infection localized in the proximity of mucosal surface. • Presence of septic thrombophlebitis. • Tissue necrosis and abscess formation. • Association with malignancies (especially intestinal). • Mixed organism morphologies on Gram stain. General Considerations A. Epidemiology and Ecology. Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant component of the normal microbial flora of the human body. The following sites harbor the vast majority of them: • Skin: Mostly gram-positive bacilli such as Propionibacterium acnes • Gastrointestinal tract: In the oral cavity Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., microaerophillic streptococci, and …

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Specific Causes Of Acute Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Great overlap occurs among the clinical manifestations of the pathogens associated with acute community-acquired pneumonia. However, constellations of symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings serve to narrow the possibilities. By developing an ability to focus on a few pathogens or to identify a specific pathogen, clinicians can better predict the clinical course of pneumonia and can narrow antibiotic coverage. Streptococcus pneumoniae Pathogenesis Pathogenic strains of S. pneumoniae have a thick capsule that prevents PMN binding and that blocks phagocytosis. Certain capsular types (1, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 12 in adults, and 3, 6, 14, 18, 19, and 23 in children) account for most pneumonia cases. Type 3 has the thickest polysaccharide …

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Tetracyclines General Statement: Uses

Tetracyclines are used principally in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, and a variety of uncommon gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Because of the development of resistance, tetracyclines are rarely used for the treatment of infections caused by common gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria unless other appropriate anti-infectives are contraindicated or are ineffective and in vitro susceptibility tests indicate that the causative organisms are susceptible to the drugs. Generally, given a susceptible organism, the currently available tetracyclines are all equally effective when administered in appropriate dosages. Because minocycline and, to a lesser extent, doxycycline penetrate most body tissues and fluids better than do other currently available tetracyclines, some clinicians …

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Penicillin G Potassium, Penicillin G Sodium

C16H18N2O4S•KC16H18N2O4S•Na • Penicillin G is a natural penicillin antibiotic. Uses Penicillin G potassium or sodium is used parenterally when rapid and high concentrations of penicillin G are required, as in the treatment of septicemia, meningitis, pericarditis, endocarditis, severe pneumonia, or other serious infections caused by organisms susceptible to penicillin G. For specific information on the uses of penicillin G potassium and penicillin G sodium, see Uses in the Natural Penicillins General Statement 8:12.16.04. Dosage and Administration • Reconstitution and Administration Penicillin G potassium is administered by IM injection or by continuous or intermittent IV infusion. The drug has also been administered orally and by intrapleural, intra-articular, and other local instillations. Penicillin …

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Imipenem and Cilastatin

C12H17N3O4S•H2 • Imipenem and cilastatin sodium is a fixed combination of imipenem monohydrate (a semisynthetic carbapenem b-lactam antibiotic) and cilastatin sodium, 1, 35 which prevents renal metabolism of imipenem by dehydropeptidase I (DHP I). Uses Imipenem and cilastatin sodium solution is used IV in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible organisms including lower respiratory tract, skin and skin structure, intra-abdominal, gynecologic, or bone and joint infections. The drug also is used IV in the treatment of serious complicated or uncomplicated urinary tract infections, septicemia, or endocarditis caused by susceptible organisms. If IM therapy is considered appropriate, imipenem and cilastatin sodium for injectable suspension can be used IM in the …

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Ceftriaxone Sodium

• Ceftriaxone is a semisynthetic, third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Uses Ceftriaxone is used for the treatment of bone and joint infections, endocarditis, intra-abdominal infections, meningitis and other CNS infections, otitis media, respiratory tract infections,septicemia, skin and skin structure infections, and urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria. The drug also is used for the treatment of chancroid, gonorrhea and associated infections, pelvic inflammatory disease,infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis, infections caused by Shigella, and typhoid fever and other infections caused by Salmonella. In addition, ceftriaxone is used for the treatment of Lyme disease and for empiric anti-infective therapy in febrile neutropenic patients, and has been used for perioperative prophylaxis. Ceftriaxone has a …

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Order Erythromycin (Ilosone) Without Prescription 250/500mg

Erythromycin [Ilosone 250mg, 500mg] (British Approved Name, US Adopted Name, rINN) Drug Nomenclature International Nonproprietary Names (INNs) in main languages (French, Latin, Russian, and Spanish): Synonyms: Eritromicin; Eritromicina; Eritromicinas; Erythromycin; Erythromycinum; Erytromycin; Erytromysiini BAN: Erythromycin INN: Erythromycin [rINN (en)] INN: Eritromicina [rINN (es)] INN: Érythromycine [rINN (fr)] INN: Erythromycinum [rINN (la)] INN: Еритромицин [rINN (ru)] Chemical name: Erythromycin A is (2R,3S,4S,5R,6R,8R,10R,11R,12S,13R)-5-(3-amino-3,4,6-trideoxy-N,N-dimethyl-β-d-xylo-hexopyranosyloxy)-3-(2,6-dideoxy-3-C,3-O-dimethyl-αl-ribo-hexopyranosyloxy)-13-ethyl-6,11,12-trihydroxy-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexamethyl-9-oxotridecan-13-olide Molecular formula: C37H67NO13 =733.9 CAS: 114-07-8 ATC code: D10AF02; J01FA01; S01AA17 Read code: y00zu [Skin]; y02P4; y0Cdx [2] Pharmacopoeias. In China, Europe, International, Japan, and US. European Pharmacopoeia, 6th ed., 2008 and Supplements 6.1 and 6.2 (Erythromycin). It is produced by the growth of a strain of Streptomyces erythreus and …

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