Tags: Abscesses

Echinococcal Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Radiographic finding of cyst • Positive echinococcal serology • Aspiration of cyst revealing echinococcal sand or hooks • Typical histologic appearance of cyst wall General Considerations The normal life cycle of Echinococcus species does not involve humans. Human disease occurs when humans become an accidental intermediate host for the parasite, and tissue invasion is followed by the formation of cysts (hydatid cysts). The definitive hosts for echinococcal species are canines (usually dogs), in whom the adult worms live. There may be several hundred worms within a host, and …

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American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ Disease)

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Epidemiologic factors: time spent in an endemic zone; poor housing conditions, eg, mud or thatched housing; exposure to reduviid insect vector • History and physical exam: Romana’s sign (swollen periorbital mucosal tissues after ocular inoculation); chagoma (skin nodule at the site of acute inoculation); in the chronic phase, congestive heart failure, dysphagia or regurgitation, and constipation • Laboratory exam: 1. Acute Chagas’: trypomastigotes revealed by Giemsa smear of blood or buffy coat; culture of affected tissues, ie, the inoculation site; serologic enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); xenodiagnosis …

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Amebic Liver Abscess

ContentsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Amebic liver abscess is the most common extraintestinal manifestation of amebiasis. Patients may note right-upper-quadrant pain that is either dull or pleuritic in nature. Often pain is referred to the right shoulder. Less than 50% of patients have an enlarged liver. In the acute setting, patients typically manifest fever. If symptoms have been present for > 2 weeks, fever is present in less than half of patients. Respiratory symptoms, such as cough, can occur even in the absence of pulmonary disease and may be the only complaint. In the subacute …

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Toxoplasma Gondii

ContentsGeneral ConsiderationsToxoplasma Gondii: Clinical Findings Clinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsToxoplasma Gondii: TreatmentPrevention & ControlTable 1. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis.Table 2. Interpretation of Toxoplasma serology in pregnant women.1BOX 1. Clinical Syndromes Associated with Toxoplasmosis1BOX 2. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent PatientsBOX 3. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant WomenBOX 4. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in NewbornsBOX 5. Treatment of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised PatientsBOX 6. Prevention of Primary T gondii Infection1BOX 7. Primary Prophylaxis in Immunodeficient PatientsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCGeneral Considerations A. Epidemiology. Toxoplasma gondii infection, or toxoplasmosis, is a zoonosis (the definitive hosts are members of the cat family). The two most common routes …

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Nonfalciparum Malaria (P Vivax, P Ovale, P Malariae)

ContentsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Patients with nonfalciparum malaria invariably develop fever and chills that may become cyclic. Initially, patients experience chills, which are followed by fever (Box 1). Patients with malaria often manifest many nonspecific symptoms such as weakness, malaise, headache, and myalgias. As the disease progresses, signs of anemia, such as pale conjunctiva, may be seen. Splenomegaly and mild hepatomegaly may also be present. After hours of fever, defervescence occurs with marked diaphoresis. Patients are weakened and exhausted from the severity of the disease. In established infections caused by P vivax and …

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Paracoccidioidomycosis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Patients usually immunocompetent. • Patients in endemic areas with chronic pulmonary and mucotaneous lesions involving the mouth, nose, larynx, and face; regional or diffuse lymphadenopathy. • Found in Latin America, from Mexico to Argentina. • Dimorphic fungus: yeast form in tissue specimens and at 37 °C; mold form when grown at room temperature in the laboratory. • Thick-walled yeast, 4-40 um, with multiple buds when seen in tissue specimens. • Complement fixation or immunodiffusion. General Considerations Paracoccidioidomycosis is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Also known as South American blastomycosis, it …

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Penicillium Infections

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Penicillium marneffei infection found in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. • P marneffei found in Southeast Asia and southern China. • Mold, septate hyphae 1.5-5 um in diameter. • May be cultured from a variety of specimens including blood. • Penicillium spp. other than P marneffei occur worldwide. • Infection with Penicillium spp. is rare; occurs in immunosuppressed patients. General Considerations A. Epidemiology. Penicillium spp. are ubiquitous in nature and may be recovered with ease from a variety of sources within the hospital environment. These molds commonly contaminate clinical …

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Aspergillus, Pseudallescheria, & Agents of Mucormycosis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESInvasive Pulmonary AspergillosisAspergilloma DISSEMINATED ASPERGILLOSISClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatment, Prevention, & Control ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSISClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisFarmer’s LungAspergillus SinusitisPseudallescheria Boydii InfectionMUCORMYCOSISEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsMucormycosis: Clinical SyndromesTable 1. Diagnostic criteria for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.Table 2. Clinical aspects of Aspergillus sinusitis.BOX 1. Aspergillus InfectionBOX 2. Treatment of Aspergillus Infection in Children and AdultsBOX 3. Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Invasive Aspergillus spp. in Immunosuppressed PatientsBOX 4. Treatment of PseudallescheriosisBOX 5. Treatment of Mucormycosis in Children and AdultsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCASPERGILLUS INFECTION Essentials of Diagnosis • Filamentous fungus with septate hyphae 3-6 um in diameter. • Branching of hyphal elements typically at 45° angle. • Specific IgG …

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Candida Species

Contents Essentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESCandida DermatitisOral CandidiasisEsophageal CandidiasisCandida VulvovaginitisCandiduria, Candida Cystitis & Urinary Tract CandidiasisCandidemia & Disseminated CandidiasisCANDIDA ENDOCARDITISDiagnosisTreatmentGI CANDIDIASIS (NONESOPHAGEAL)DiagnosisTreatmentOTHER CANDIDA SYNDROMESDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & Control of Candida InfectionsBOX 1. Dermatologic and Mucosal CandidiasisBOX 2. Deep-Tissue Candida Infection BOX 3. Treatment of Oral CandidiasisBOX 4. Treatment of Candida EsophagitisBOX 5. Treatment of Candida Vulvovaginitis1BOX 6. Treatment of Urinary Tract CandidiasisBOX 7. Treatment of Candidemia and Disseminated Candidiasis1BOX 8. Treatment of Candida EndocarditisBOX 9. Treatment of Non-esophageal GI Candidiasis BOX 10. Prevention & Control of CandidiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTC Essentials of Diagnosis • Characteristic appearance of yeast and hyphae on KOH preparations. • Formation of germ tubes …

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Candidemia & Disseminated Candidiasis

ContentsDiagnosisTreatmentBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCCandidemia may present in a variety of fashions, ranging from asymptomatic to fulminant sepsis. The candidemic patient generally has risk factors for infection, such as malignancy, chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, organ transplantation, GI surgery, burns, indwelling catheters, or exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Disseminated candidiasis must be assumed to be present in those with positive blood cultures, although negative cultures do not preclude the possibility of disseminated disease. Dissemination usually manifests with many microabscesses involving multiple organs, especially the liver, spleen, and eye, but almost any organ may be involved (Box 2). Diagnosis Candidemia is diagnosed by recovering Candida species in blood …

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