Tags: Abdominal pain

Cestodes

ContentsDiphyllobothrium Latum InfectionTaenia Solium InfectionCysticercosis (Cysticercus Cellulosea Infection)Taenia Saginata InfectionHYMENOLEPIS NANA INFECTIONEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlHYMENOLEPIS DIMINUTAEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlDipylidium Caninum InfectionEchinococcal InfectionBOX 1.BOX 2.BOX 3.Buy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCHuman infections caused by cestodes, or tapeworms, may occur within the lumen of the bowel, where adult cestodes attach themselves to the host intestine (Box 1). Alternatively, human infection may be the result of dissemination of cestodes from the bowel to involve extraintestinal sites, often by larval forms of the parasite. The life cycle of cestodes is determined by definitive hosts, in whom the mature adult worm …

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Diphyllobothrium Latum Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Stool examination reveals ovoid, yellow-brown eggs (60-75 um by 40-50 um). • Chains of proglottids (up to 50 cm long) may be passed in stool. • Proglottids are wider than long (3 by 11 mm). • Scolex has no hooklets and two grooves (bothria). • Gravid proglottid contains rosette-shaped central uterus. General Considerations D latum is found worldwide, and infection is acquired by ingestion of contaminated raw or improperly cooked freshwater fish. Because of enthusiasm for raw or undercooked fish, Siberia, Europe, Canada, Alaska, and Japan are endemic …

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African Trypanosomiasis

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCIn Africa, a wide variety of trypanosomes infect wild animals but only two cause significant disease in humans: T brucei gambiense and T brucei rhodesiense. Essentials of Diagnosis • Epidemiologic factors: living or traveling in an endemic zone; exposure to tsetse fly. • History and physical exam: 1. General: periodic fevers, wasting, nutritional deficiencies. 2. Skin: chancre at the site of inoculation, fleeting truncal rash, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy. 3. Neurologic: disturbed sleep patterns (diurnal somnolence, nocturnal insomnia), mental status changes, cerebellar signs. • Laboratory: 1. Blood smear with Giemsa stain shows hemoflagellates. 2. …

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American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas’ Disease)

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Epidemiologic factors: time spent in an endemic zone; poor housing conditions, eg, mud or thatched housing; exposure to reduviid insect vector • History and physical exam: Romana’s sign (swollen periorbital mucosal tissues after ocular inoculation); chagoma (skin nodule at the site of acute inoculation); in the chronic phase, congestive heart failure, dysphagia or regurgitation, and constipation • Laboratory exam: 1. Acute Chagas’: trypomastigotes revealed by Giemsa smear of blood or buffy coat; culture of affected tissues, ie, the inoculation site; serologic enzyme immunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); xenodiagnosis …

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Giardia

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsGiardia: Clinical Syndromes Table 1. Laboratory diagnosis of giardiasis.1BOX 1. GiardiasisBOX 2. Treatment of GiardiasisBOX 3. Prevention & Control of GiardiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Key symptoms include initially profuse and watery diarrhea progressing to foul-smelling and often greasy stools that float. • It is the most common pathogen in waterborne diarrheal illness. • Patients at highest risk include infants, young children, travelers, and immunocompromised patients. • In North America, the Rocky Mountains and mountainous regions of the northwest, northeast, and British Columbia are notorious Giardia reservoirs. • Giardiasis is diagnosed either by identification of cysts or trophozoites …

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Giardia: Clinical Syndromes

ContentsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCAfter ingestion of G lamblia cysts, 5-15% of patients will have asymptomatic cyst passage, and 25-50% of patients will have diarrhea. From 35% to 70% of these patients will have no evidence of infection. The three manifestations of infection include asymptomatic cyst passage, self-limited diarrhea, and chronic diarrhea with associated malabsorption and weight loss. Factors related to each of these manifestations are unknown but are believed to be related to specific host factors, parasite load, and virulence variation among G lamblia isolates. 1. ACUTE GIARDIASIS Clinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. After ingestion of cysts, an …

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Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, & Isospora Species & Microsporidia

ContentsCRYPTOSPORIDIUMEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCryptosporidium: Clinical SyndromesCyclosporaIsosporaMicrosporidiaCLINICAL SYNDROMES IN NON-HIV-INFECTED PATIENTSClinical FindingsClinical FindingsDiagnosisTreatmentPrevention & ControlTable 1. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis.Table 2. Laboratory diagnosis of Cyclospora infection.Table 3. Laboratory diagnosis of isosporiasis.Table 4. Laboratory diagnosis of microsporidiosis.BOX 1. Cryptosporidiosis SyndromesBOX 2. Treatment of Cryptosporidiosis1BOX 3. Prevention & Control of CryptosporidiosisBOX 4. Cyclosporiasis SyndromesBOX 5. Treatment of CyclosporiasisBOX 6. Prevention & Control of Cyclospora and Isospora spp. and MicrosporidiaBOX 7. Isosporiasis SyndromesBOX 8. Treatment of Isosporiasis BOX 9. Microsporidiosis in Non-HIV PatientsBOX 10. Microsporidiosis Syndromes in HIV Patients (Syndrome and Organism)BOX 11. Treatment of MicrosporidiosisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCWithin the last decade, the AIDS epidemic has heightened …

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Pathogenic Amebas

ContentsENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA & ENTAMOEBA DISPAREssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsCLINICAL SYNDROMESIntestinal DiseaseAmebic Liver AbscessPATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMEBASACANTHAMOEBA INFECTIONNAEGLERIA FOWLERI INFECTION BOX 1. Clinical Features of AmebiasisBOX 2. Treatment of Amebiasis in AdultsBOX 3. Treatment of Amebiasis in ChildrenBOX 4. Prevention of Control of AmebiasisBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA & ENTAMOEBA DISPAR Essentials of Diagnosis • Patient living in or having traveled to endemic area increases risk. • Frequent loose stools with blood and mucus. • Demonstration of cyst or trophozoite on stool wet mount or in biopsy specimen. • Serology positive within 7-10 days of infection, may remain positive for years after infection resolved. • Monoclonal …

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Intestinal Disease

ContentsClinical FindingsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCClinical Findings A. Signs and Symptoms. Of patients infected with E histolytica, > 90% are asymptomatic carriers who are colonized with the organism and pass cysts in the stool. This carrier state often resolves without treatment, although relapses and reinfection are common. Acute amebic colitis usually presents with several weeks of lower abdominal pain and diarrhea with frequent loose to watery stools containing blood and mucus. Most patients are afebrile. Significant volume depletion is uncommon. Chronic amebic colitis is characterized by low-grade inflammation resulting in intermittent bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain over a period of months to years. …

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