Tags: Abdominal Abscess

Important Anaerobes

Essentials of Diagnosis • Foul odor of draining purulence. • Presence of gas in tissues. • No organism growth on aerobic culture media. • Infection localized in the proximity of mucosal surface. • Presence of septic thrombophlebitis. • Tissue necrosis and abscess formation. • Association with malignancies (especially intestinal). • Mixed organism morphologies on Gram stain. General Considerations A. Epidemiology and Ecology. Anaerobic bacteria are the predominant component of the normal microbial flora of the human body. The following sites harbor the vast majority of them: • Skin: Mostly gram-positive bacilli such as Propionibacterium acnes • Gastrointestinal tract: In the oral cavity Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., microaerophillic streptococci, and …

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Important Anaerobes: Clinical Syndromes

Box 1 summarizes different clinical syndromes associated with anaerobic bacteria. The sections that follow describe the various syndromes, including clinical findings. For some syndromes, specific diagnosis and treatment information is included as well. For other syndromes, see summary diagnosis and treatment sections at the end of the chapter. HEAD & NECK 1. EAR & PARANASAL SINUSES The flora in as many as two-thirds of chronic sinusitis and otitis cases includes B fragilis, Prevotella spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., and Porphyromonas spp. It is not surprising that ~50% of patients with chronic otitis media are infected with anaerobic bacteria, B fragilis being the most common. Mastoiditis may arise as a complication in some of …

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Intra-abdominal Infections

Definition Intra-abdominal infections are those contained within the peritoneum or retroperitoneal space. Two general types of intra-abdominal infection are discussed throughout this chapter: peritonitis and abscess. Peritonitis is defined as the acute, inflammatory response of peritoneal lining to microorganisms, chemicals, irradiation, or foreign body injury. Peritonitis may be classified as either primary or secondary. With primary peritonitis, an intra-abdominal focus of disease may not be evident. In secondary peritonitis, a focal disease process is evident within the abdomen. An abscess is a purulent collection of fluid separated by a more or less well-defined wall from surrounding tissue. It usually contains necrotic debris, bacteria, and inflammatory cells. Pathophysiology Table Causes of Bacterial …

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Amphotericin B: Uses

Conventional IV amphotericin B (formulated with sodium desoxycholate) is used for the treatment of potentially life-threatening fungal infections including aspergillosis, North American blastomycosis, systemic candidiasis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis,, sporotrichosis, and zygomycosis. The drug also has been used IV for empiric antifungal therapy in febrile neutropenic patients, for chronic suppressive or maintenance therapy (secondary prophylaxis) to prevent recurrence or relapse of cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis, or coccidioidomycosis in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, or for prevention of fungal infections in other immunocompromised individuals (e.g., cancer patients, bone marrow or solid organ transplant patients). In addition, conventional IV amphotericin B is used for the treatment of certain protozoal infections, including leishmaniasis and …

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Buy Cleocin (Clindamycin) Without Prescription 150/300mg

Clindamycin Hydrochloride, Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride, Clindamycin Phosphate: Uses Clindamycin generally is used for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible gram-positive bacteria and for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria. Because the risk of severe, potentially fatal Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis may be higher with clindamycin than with certain other anti-infectives, use of the drug should be limited to serious infections for which less toxic and/or more effective anti-infectives are not readily available. However, it should be noted that C. difficile diarrhea and colitis has been associated with the use of nearly all anti-infectives, being reported most frequently with clindamycin, cephalosporins, and ampicillin; second and …

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Aztreonam

AZT • Aztreonam is a synthetic monocyclic b-lactam (i.e., monobactam) antibiotic. Uses Aztreonam is used for the treatment of complicated and uncomplicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis and cystitis), lower respiratory tract infections (including pneumonia and bronchitis), septicemia, skin and skin structure infections (including those associated with postoperative wounds or ulcers and burns), intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis), and gynecologic infections (including endometritis and pelvic cellulitis) caused by susceptible gram-negative aerobic bacteria. Because aztreonam has a limited spectrum of activity and is active only against certain aerobic gram-negative bacteria, colonization or superinfection with aztreonam-resistant organisms may occur. (See Cautions: Precautions and Contraindications.) The drug should not be used alone for empiric therapy …

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Cefoxitin Sodium

• Cefoxitin is a semisynthetic cephamycin b-lactam antibiotic. Uses Cefoxitin is used in the treatment of serious infections of the lower respiratory tract, skin and skin structure, bone and joint, and urinary tract; septicemia; gynecologic infections (including endometritis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease); and intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess) caused by susceptible bacteria. Cefoxitin also has been used in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea and is used for perioperative prophylaxis. Prior to and during cefoxitin therapy, the causative organism should be cultured and in vitro susceptibility tests conducted. In serious infections, therapy may be initiated pending results of in vitro tests. Use of cefoxitin does not replace surgical …

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Imipenem and Cilastatin

C12H17N3O4S•H2 • Imipenem and cilastatin sodium is a fixed combination of imipenem monohydrate (a semisynthetic carbapenem b-lactam antibiotic) and cilastatin sodium, 1, 35 which prevents renal metabolism of imipenem by dehydropeptidase I (DHP I). Uses Imipenem and cilastatin sodium solution is used IV in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible organisms including lower respiratory tract, skin and skin structure, intra-abdominal, gynecologic, or bone and joint infections. The drug also is used IV in the treatment of serious complicated or uncomplicated urinary tract infections, septicemia, or endocarditis caused by susceptible organisms. If IM therapy is considered appropriate, imipenem and cilastatin sodium for injectable suspension can be used IM in the …

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Ceftizoxime Sodium

• Ceftizoxime is a semisynthetic, third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Uses Ceftizoxime is used for the treatment of bone and joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, meningitis, lower respiratory tract infections, septicemia, skin and skin structure infections, and urinary tract infections caused by susceptible bacteria. The drug also is used for the treatment of gonorrhea and pelvic inflammatory disease.In addition, ceftizoxime has been used for perioperative prophylaxis. Prior to initiation of ceftizoxime therapy, appropriate specimens should be obtained for identification of the causative organism and in vitro susceptibility tests. Ceftizoxime therapy may be started pending results of susceptibility tests but should be discontinued if the causative organism is found to be resistant to the …

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Azactam (Aztreonam)

Azactam  lg or 2g Powder for Solution for Injection or Infusion, Vial Aztreonam 1. What Azactam is and what it is used for Read indications for use if you want to order  Aztreonam online The name of this medicine is Azactam. The active ingredient in Azactam is aztreonam. Azactam is available in two strengths and each vial contains either lg or 2g aztreonam as a powder for solution for injection or infusion. Aztreonam is an antibiotic and a member of the family of medicines called monobactams. Azactam also contains L-arginine. Azactam is for the treatment of serious infections caused by bacteria which require an antibiotic injection. 2. Before you are given your medicine …

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