Skin Infections

Cellulitis Periorbital & Orbital

Description of Medical Condition An acute, spreading infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Several entities are recognized. Cellulitis around the eyes is a potentially dangerous periorbital and orbital infection. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Nervous Genetics: No known genetic pattern Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Unknown Predominant age: N/A Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Lid edema • Rhinorrhea • Orbital pain, tenderness • Headache • Conjunctival hyperemia • Chemosis • Ptosis • Limitation to ocular motion • Increase intraocular pressure • Disease in corneal sensation • Congestion of retinal veins • Chorioretinal stria • Gangrene and sloughing of lids What Causes Disease? • Cellulitis around the eye …

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Cellulitis

Description of Medical Condition An acute, spreading infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Several entities are recognized: • Cellulitis of the extremities — characterized by an expanding, red, swollen, tender or painful plaque with an indefinite border that may cover a wide area • Recurrent cellulitis of the leg after saphenous venectomy — patients have an acute onset of swelling, erythema of the legs arising months to years after coronary artery bypass. (Surgery using lower extremity veins for bypass grafts.) • Dissecting cellulitis of the scalp — recurrent painful, fluctuant dermal and subcutaneous nodules • Facial cellulitis in adults — a rare event. Patients usually develop pharyngitis, followed by high …

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Blastomycosis

Description of Medical Condition An uncommon, systemic, fungal infection with a broad range of manifestations including pulmonary, skin, bone and genitourinary involvement System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Pulmonary, Musculoskeletal, Renal/Urologic, Endocrine/Metabolic Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Ranges from 0.4-4 cases per 100,000 population per year. Higher prevalence in states bordering the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. Sporadic cases occurring in other areas. Predominant age: Adults, but 10-20% of cases occur in children Predominant sex: Male > Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Acute infection – Onset may be abrupt or insidious – May be asymptomatic and self-limiting – Incubation period 30-45 days – Fever, chills, myalgias, arthralgias – Cough initially nonproductive, then …

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Bartonella Infections

Description of Medical Condition Bartonella infections cause manifestations in two broad categories: • Localized skin lesions and prominent regional lymphadenitis, i.e., typical cat scratch disease (CSD). Atypical CSD manifestations often represent disseminated infection. • Primary bacteremia, potential for persistent disseminated infection with localized inflammatory (and neovascular) lesions in a variety of organ systems and/or ongoing bacteremia. System(s) affected: Nervous, Cardiovascular, Musculoskeletal, Pulmonary, Gastrointestinal, Skin/ Exocrine, Hemic/Lymphatic/lmmunologic Genetics: No defined genetic predisposition Incidence/Prevalence in USA: • Non-B. bacilliformis infections: – CSD: estimated 9.3/100,000 people (approximately 25,000 cases annually) • Others, no incidence estimates Predominant age: • B. henselae infections: – CSD: 55% in persons < 18 years old – BA/BP, bacteremia, endocarditis, …

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Skin and Soft Tissue Infections

Definition Bacterial infections of the skin can be classified as primary (pyodermas or cellulitis) or secondary (invasion of the wound) (Table Bacterial Classification of Important Skin and Soft Tissue Infections). Primary bacterial infections are usually caused by a single bacterial species and involve areas of generally healthy skin (e.g., impetigo, erysipelas). Secondary infections, however, develop in areas of previously damaged skin and are frequently polymicrobic in nature. The conditions that may predispose a patient to the development of skin and soft tissue infections include (1) a high concentration of bacteria, (2) excessive moisture of the skin, (3) inadequate blood supply, (4) availability of bacterial nutrients, and (5) damage to the corneal …

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