Parasitic Infections

Cestodes

ContentsDiphyllobothrium Latum InfectionTaenia Solium InfectionCysticercosis (Cysticercus Cellulosea Infection)Taenia Saginata InfectionHYMENOLEPIS NANA INFECTIONEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlHYMENOLEPIS DIMINUTAEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlDipylidium Caninum InfectionEchinococcal InfectionBOX 1.BOX 2.BOX 3.Buy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCHuman infections caused by cestodes, or tapeworms, may occur within the lumen of the bowel, where adult cestodes attach themselves to the host intestine (Box 1). Alternatively, human infection may be the result of dissemination of cestodes from the bowel to involve extraintestinal sites, often by larval forms of the parasite. The life cycle of cestodes is determined by definitive hosts, in whom the mature adult worm …

Continue Reading...

Echinococcal Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Radiographic finding of cyst • Positive echinococcal serology • Aspiration of cyst revealing echinococcal sand or hooks • Typical histologic appearance of cyst wall General Considerations The normal life cycle of Echinococcus species does not involve humans. Human disease occurs when humans become an accidental intermediate host for the parasite, and tissue invasion is followed by the formation of cysts (hydatid cysts). The definitive hosts for echinococcal species are canines (usually dogs), in whom the adult worms live. There may be several hundred worms within a host, and …

Continue Reading...

Dipylidium Caninum Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Motile proglottids 23 by 8 mm. • Proglottids have genital pores at either end and contain egg clusters. • Eggs occur in compartmented clusters (diagnostic). • Scolex has 4-7 rows of hooklets and 4 suckers. General Considerations D caninum is distributed worldwide and is associated with wild and domesticated cats and dogs. The life cycle is similar to that of H diminuta, with an obligatory arthropod intermediate host. The adult worm lives in dogs, cats, or humans, and gravid proglottids are released from the adult worm either singly …

Continue Reading...

Taenia Saginata Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Stool examination reveals spheroidal yellow-brown eggs (31-43 mm). • Motile proglottids that appear singly in stool. • Mature proglottids are square. • Scolex has no hooklets and four suckers. • Gravid proglottid has 15-20 lateral branches. General Considerations T saginata infection is commonly associated with the ingestion of undercooked beef. This is distinguished from infection with T solium because human infection with the larval form (as in cysticercosis) is extremely rare with T saginata infection. T saginata infection is common in areas of the world with intensive cattle …

Continue Reading...

Cysticercosis (Cysticercus Cellulosea Infection)

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Surgical excision of involved tissue, with microscopic identification of parasite. • Frequently calcified cysts present on x-ray or computed tomography (CT) scans. • Positive serology indicating previous exposure to T solium. • Fine-needle aspiration of cysts (characteristic cytomorphology). General Considerations Cysticercosis is caused by invasion of tissue by the larval forms of T solium, which have been referred to as Cysticercus cellulosea, although the name is not taxonomically correct and introduces confusion. Within a host infected by the adult T solium, eggs or proglottids are passed in the …

Continue Reading...

Taenia Solium Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Spheroidal yellow-brown eggs (31-43 um). • Scolex has hooklets and four suckers. • Proglottids usually appear as short chains. • Mature proglottids are square and nonmotile. • Gravid proglottid has 7-13 lateral branches on each side of uterus. General Considerations T solium infection occurs worldwide; endemic areas include Mexico, South and Central America, Africa, Southeast Asia, India, and the Philippines. T solium infection is commonly linked to the ingestion of undercooked pork, although other animals may harbor the larval form of the parasite. Infection may be intestinal, which …

Continue Reading...

Diphyllobothrium Latum Infection

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsClinical FindingsDifferential DiagnosisComplicationsTreatmentPrognosisPrevention & ControlBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Stool examination reveals ovoid, yellow-brown eggs (60-75 um by 40-50 um). • Chains of proglottids (up to 50 cm long) may be passed in stool. • Proglottids are wider than long (3 by 11 mm). • Scolex has no hooklets and two grooves (bothria). • Gravid proglottid contains rosette-shaped central uterus. General Considerations D latum is found worldwide, and infection is acquired by ingestion of contaminated raw or improperly cooked freshwater fish. Because of enthusiasm for raw or undercooked fish, Siberia, Europe, Canada, Alaska, and Japan are endemic …

Continue Reading...

Nematodes

ContentsEssentials of DiagnosisGeneral ConsiderationsIntestinal Nematode InfectionsTissue Nematode InfectionsClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrognosisPreventionClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPrevention & PrognosisClinical FindingsTreatmentPreventionBOX 1. Nematodes Pathogenic in Human1BOX 2. Treatment of Selected Intestinal Nematode InfectionsBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCEssentials of Diagnosis • Intestinal nematodes: demonstration of characteristic eggs or parasites in stool. • Bloodstream nematodes (filariasis): clinical diagnosis can be made; fresh blood smear may be confirmatory. • Tissue nematodes: clinical diagnosis can be made; skin snip or other tissue examination may show organism. General Considerations Nematodes (roundworms) are nonsegmented, tapered, bilaterally symmetrical, cylindrical organisms that have complete digestive tracts and reproduce sexually. Although > 500,000 species of nematodes …

Continue Reading...

Tissue Nematode Infections

ContentsLYMPHATIC FILARIASISClinical & Laboratory FindingsTreatmentPreventionOTHER FILARIAL INFECTIONSClinical FindingsTreatmentClinical FindingsTreatmentBuy Most Popular Antibiotic, Antifungal, Antiparasitic, Antiviral Drugs Online no RX & OTCLYMPHATIC FILARIASIS Lymphatic filariasis is a bloodstream and lymphatic infection caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori. The disease is endemic in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. A mosquito serves as an intermediate host and vector; the peak blood parasitemia and optimum time of the day or night for obtaining blood smears differ in various parts of the world, corresponding to the feeding pattern of the local mosquito vectors. After deposition by mosquitoes of infectious microfilariae into humans during a blood meal, 6-12 mo …

Continue Reading...
CLOSE
CLOSE