Antibiotics and Mastoid Infections

Question from Daniel I am 56 yrs. old and have had mastoid troubles since 5yrs old. I had my first ear surgery when I was 5 yrs. old on right ear with big scare behind the ear and another one right ear and left ear when I was 18yrs old and I have lost all hearing and feeling in left ear. I have frequent bouts with infection in right ear and have been using the drug “OFLAXACIN” with good results. I wear a hearing aid in left ear and have since 14yrs old. Where did this come from and why does it (Mastoid Infection) and why does it keep flaring up? …

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Chronic ear infections

Question from Steve of Missouri, USA I have a one year old daughter who seems to have chronic ear infections. She has taken numerous antibiotics. Each one seems to clear up the ear infection only to come back very soon. The latest drug made her vomit immediately after taking the medicine which was one of the potential side effects. She is now taking medicine. What can cause these “one after another” ear infections and what should we do. We have her in to the pediatrician at least every 2 to 3 weeks. Do you have any suggestions? Dear Steve: Recurrent ear infections are common in your child’s age group. If your …

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Pregnant, bladder infection and antibiotics

Question from Nancy I am now 13 weeks pregnant. I have been fighting a bladder infection now for five weeks. been put on two different antibiotics but after a few days of finshing the medication, the symptoms return. I am now again needing to get more anitbiotics. I am drinking plenty of water, and completly empting my bladder (very often). My question: Could my pregnancy be the cause of this continuing problem? AND If these antibiotics are not working to kill the infection, what do I do? Dear Nancy: Your pregnancy is not causing the bladder infections. You may not be able to completely treat the bacteria during the pregnancy, however, …

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Antibiotics and helpful bacteria

Question from John of New Hampshire, USA I am on an antibiotic called CEFTIN. It lists side effects about losing certain bacteria you need in you system, but does not tell you what to do to get it back. Dear John: Antibiotics can kill many of the helpful bacteria as well as the harmful ones, leading to such side effects as thrush (yeast in the mouth), vaginal yeast, and diarrhea. These side effects are often self limited (when the antibiotic is stopped and your own “good” bacteria regrow over several days naturally), however, specific treatments may be needed in cases where abnormal bacteria dominate and can even involve another antibiotic. Buy …

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Bacteremia and treated with antibiotics

Question from Holly of Davenport, Iowa, USA My son was recently diagnosed with bacteremia and treated with antibiotics. What is this condition, and how serious is it? Dear Holly: Bacteremia means bacteria within the blood stream. There are many causes of bacteremia ranging from the usually harmless minor bacteremia from brushing one’s teeth to the potentially serious bacteremia that can be from bacterial infections within organs of the body. The severity of the bacteremia depends on exactly what is causing the seeding of bacteria into the blood as well as the underlying condition of the patient. For example, if a patient has foreign body implants, such as joint replacements or heart …

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Antibiotics and Alcohol

Question from Susan of CT, USA When taking an antibiotic, is there a general rule to follow regarding the intake of alcohol or would this depend upon the particular antibiotic in question? In particular, I was advised against taking alcohol while taking doxycycline while nothing was said about alcohol regarding KEFLEX. Dear Susan: An excellent question. Alcohol in general is not contraindicated with antibiotics, with many exceptions. For example FLAGYL and many monobactam antibiotics combined with alcohol are a bad mix and can cause severe nausea and headaches. Alcohol and INH combination may be liver toxic. Doxycycline and many other medications maybe irritating to the stomach, as can alcohol, and this …

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Antithyroid Drugs

Synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones and mechanisms of action of antithyroid drugs Iodine is actively concentrated by the thyroid gland (sodium iodide transporter). After oxidation it is bound to thyrosine residues thus forming monoiodothyronine (MIT) or diiodothyronine (DIT). MIT and DITare coupled to triiodothyronine (T3) orthyroxine (T4) and are stored in thyroid follicles bound to thyroglobuline. Thyroid hormones are released by proteolysis. In the peripheral blood, T4 is converted to T3. Antithyroid drugs act by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase-mediated formation of T3 and T4 and compete with iodothyronine residues for oxidized iodine. Moreover, they inhibit iodine oxidation. Propylthiouracil (PTU), but not methyl-mercaptoimidazole (MMI), inhibits the monodeiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. …

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Antiprotozoal Drugs

Antiprotozoal Drugs Chemical structure of relevant antiprotozoal drugs Life cycle of malarial parasites and site of action of different antimalarial drugs Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Infected Anopheles mosquitoes transmitted the parasite to humans during blood feeding. The infective stages are the sporozoites, which invade liver cells where they replicate to form merozoites. Upon rupture of the infected hepatocyte, merozoites are released into the blood stream where they infect erythrocytes. Within the erythrocyte, the parasites develop from ring stages to trophozoits, and then to schizonts. When the infected erythrocyte finally ruptures, merozoites are released, which again invade erythrocytes. Some intraerythocytic ring stages develop to sexual stages …

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