Antibiotics and helpful bacteria

Question from John of New Hampshire, USA I am on an antibiotic called CEFTIN. It lists side effects about losing certain bacteria you need in you system, but does not tell you what to do to get it back. Dear John: Antibiotics can kill many of the helpful bacteria as well as the harmful ones, leading to such side effects as thrush (yeast in the mouth), vaginal yeast, and diarrhea. These side effects are often self limited (when the antibiotic is stopped and your own “good” bacteria regrow over several days naturally), however, specific treatments may be needed in cases where abnormal bacteria dominate and can even involve another antibiotic. Buy …

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Bacteremia and treated with antibiotics

Question from Holly of Davenport, Iowa, USA My son was recently diagnosed with bacteremia and treated with antibiotics. What is this condition, and how serious is it? Dear Holly: Bacteremia means bacteria within the blood stream. There are many causes of bacteremia ranging from the usually harmless minor bacteremia from brushing one’s teeth to the potentially serious bacteremia that can be from bacterial infections within organs of the body. The severity of the bacteremia depends on exactly what is causing the seeding of bacteria into the blood as well as the underlying condition of the patient. For example, if a patient has foreign body implants, such as joint replacements or heart …

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Antibiotics and Alcohol

Question from Susan of CT, USA When taking an antibiotic, is there a general rule to follow regarding the intake of alcohol or would this depend upon the particular antibiotic in question? In particular, I was advised against taking alcohol while taking doxycycline while nothing was said about alcohol regarding KEFLEX. Dear Susan: An excellent question. Alcohol in general is not contraindicated with antibiotics, with many exceptions. For example FLAGYL and many monobactam antibiotics combined with alcohol are a bad mix and can cause severe nausea and headaches. Alcohol and INH combination may be liver toxic. Doxycycline and many other medications maybe irritating to the stomach, as can alcohol, and this …

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Antithyroid Drugs

Synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones and mechanisms of action of antithyroid drugs Iodine is actively concentrated by the thyroid gland (sodium iodide transporter). After oxidation it is bound to thyrosine residues thus forming monoiodothyronine (MIT) or diiodothyronine (DIT). MIT and DITare coupled to triiodothyronine (T3) orthyroxine (T4) and are stored in thyroid follicles bound to thyroglobuline. Thyroid hormones are released by proteolysis. In the peripheral blood, T4 is converted to T3. Antithyroid drugs act by inhibiting the thyroid peroxidase-mediated formation of T3 and T4 and compete with iodothyronine residues for oxidized iodine. Moreover, they inhibit iodine oxidation. Propylthiouracil (PTU), but not methyl-mercaptoimidazole (MMI), inhibits the monodeiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine. …

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Antiprotozoal Drugs

Antiprotozoal Drugs Chemical structure of relevant antiprotozoal drugs Life cycle of malarial parasites and site of action of different antimalarial drugs Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Infected Anopheles mosquitoes transmitted the parasite to humans during blood feeding. The infective stages are the sporozoites, which invade liver cells where they replicate to form merozoites. Upon rupture of the infected hepatocyte, merozoites are released into the blood stream where they infect erythrocytes. Within the erythrocyte, the parasites develop from ring stages to trophozoits, and then to schizonts. When the infected erythrocyte finally ruptures, merozoites are released, which again invade erythrocytes. Some intraerythocytic ring stages develop to sexual stages …

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