Fungal Infections

Management of Tinea Cruris (Itraconazole, Terbinafine, Griseofulvin)

Definition of Tinea Cruris The term tinea cruris is used to refer to dermatophyte infections of the groin and pubic region. Geographical distribution of Tinea Cruris The condition is worldwide in distribution. Causal organisms The dermatophytes most often encountered in tinea cruris are E. floccosum and T. rubrum. Maceration and occlusion of the skin in the groin give rise to warm moist conditions that favour the development of the infection. Tinea cruris is a common form of dermatophytosis. It is more prevalent in men than women. It usually occurs between the ages of 18 and 60, but is most prevalent between the ages of 18 and 25, and between 40 and …

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Management of Tinea Corporis (Griseofulvin, Terbinafine, Itraconazole)

Definition of Tinea Corporis The term tinea corporis is used to refer to dermatophyte infections of the trunk, legs and arms, but excluding the groin, hands and feet. Geographical distribution of Tinea Corporis The condition is worldwide in distribution, but is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Causal organisms Tinea corporis is caused by E. floccosum and many species of Trichophyton and Microsporum. Infection with anthropophilic species, such as E. floccosum or T. rubrum often follows autoinoculation from another infected body site, such as the feet. Tinea corporis caused by T. tonsurans is sometimes seen in children with tinea capitis and their close contacts. Tinea corporis commonly occurs following contact …

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Management of Tinea Capitis (Terbinafine, Itraconazole)

Definition of Tinea Capitis The term tinea capitis is used to refer to dermatophyte infections of the scalp and hair. Geographical distribution of Tinea Capitis The condition is worldwide in distribution, but is most prevalent in Africa, Asia and southern and eastern Europe, where it is the most common form of dermatophytosis. Improved standards of hygiene and prompt eradication of sporadic infection have led to a marked decline in the incidence of tinea capitis in North America and western Europe. Favus used to be worldwide in distribution, but is now confined to North Africa, the Middle East and parts of southern and eastern Europe. Causal organisms Tinea capitis is caused by a number …

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Coccidioidomycosis

Description of Medical Condition Pulmonary fungal infection endemic to the Southwest USA. Can become progressive and involve extrapulmonary sites, including bone, CNS, and skin. Known as the “great imitator.” Incubation period is 1 to 4 weeks after exposure. System(s) affected: Pulmonary, Nervous, Musculoskeletal, Skin/Exocrine, Endocrine/Metabolic Genetics: Unknown Incidence/Prevalence in USA: 100,000 cases per year. (0.5% extrapulmonary) Predominant age: All ages Predominant sex: Male = Female Medical Symptoms and Signs of Disease • Note: Over half of cases are subclinical • Anorexia • Arthralgias • Chest pain • Chills • Confusion • Cough, dry or productive • Cyanosis • Dyspnea • Erythema nodosum • Fatigue • Fever • Headache • Malaise • …

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Candidiasis Mucocutaneous

Description of Medical Condition A mucocutaneous disorder caused by infection with various species of Candida. Candida is normally present, in very small amounts, in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. • Candida vulvovaginitis — infection on the vaginal mucosa, often associated with cutaneous vulvar involvement • Orophatyngeal candidiasis — infection of the oral cavity (“thrush”) and/or pharynx. • Candida esophagitis — usually associated with an immunosuppressed host • Gastrointestinal candidiasis — gastritis, sometimes with ulcers, usually associated with thrush. The small and large bowel can also be affected. • Angular cheilitis — fissures formed by Candida infection at the corners of the mouth. System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Gastrointestinal Genetics: …

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Candidiasis

Description of Medical Condition Candida albicans and related species cause a variety of infections. Cutaneous candidiasis syndromes include erosio interdigitalis blastomycetica, folliculitis, balanitis, intertrigo paronychia, onychomycosis, diaper rash, perianal candidiasis, and the syndromes of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Mucous membrane infections include oral candidiasis (thrush), esophagitis, and vaginitis. The most serious manifestation of candidiasis is hematogenously disseminated invasive candidiasis (sometimes referred to as acute systemic candidiasis). System(s) affected: Skin/Exocrine, Gastrointestinal, Reproductive, Pulmonary, Renal/Urologic Genetics: N/A Incidence/Prevalence in USA: Approximately 50/100,000. Hematogenously disseminated candidiasis affects at least 120,000 patients annually in the USA. Predominant age: All ages are susceptible to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Premature neonates are at particularly high risk. Predominant sex: Male …

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Fungal Infections, Invasive

Systemic mycoses, such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, blastomycosis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and sporotrichosis, are caused by primary or «pathogenic» fungi that can cause disease in both healthy and immunocompromised individuals. In contrast, mycoses caused by opportunistic fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus spp., Trichosporon, Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata, Fusarium, Alternaria, and Mucor are generally found only in the immunocompromised host. Advances in medical technology, including organ and bone marrow transplantation, cytotoxic chemotherapy, the widespread use of indwelling intravenous (intravenous) catheters, and the increased use of potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, have all contributed to the dramatic increase in the incidence of fungal infections worldwide. Specific fungal infections Candida infections Eight species of Candida are regarded …

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Specific fungal infections

Histoplasmosis Histoplasmosis is caused by inhalation of dust-borne microconidia of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. In the United States, most disease is localized along the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. Clinical Presentation In the vast majority of patients, low-inoculum exposure to H. capsulatum results in mild or asymptomatic pulmonary histoplasmosis. The course of disease is generally benign, and symptoms usually abate within a few weeks of onset. Patients exposed to a higher inoculum during a primary infection or reinfection may experience an acute, self-limited illness with flulike pulmonary symptoms, including fever, chills, headache, myalgia, and nonproductive cough. Chronic pulmonary histoplasmosis generally presents as an opportunistic infection imposed on a preexisting structural …

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